Gazetteer of Plasterers - C

CADELL (CADDEN, CADEN), Nicholas (fl. 1584-9)

A Plasterer presented by Robert Kelley (Court Day, July/August 1576) and freed on 4 September 1584, when he made a donation to the poor. He paid his beadleship fine on 1 September 1587 and was last recorded when he presented an anonymous apprentice on 12 September 1589.

CAMPION, John (fl. 1617-32)

A Plasterer apprenticed to Mr Ratcliffe (28 July 1609) but presented again by Richard Talbott on 12 March 1609/10; and it was as the latter’s ‘servant’ that he was made free (29 May 1617). He remained in the Yeomanry until at least 1632 when the Quarterage Accounts cease.

CAPP (CAPP, CAPPE), Hugh (fl. 1572; d. 1617)

A Plasterer of St Stephen Coleman Street; he married Eleanor Raynbold at his parish church on 1 June 1572 and was recorded at the baptism of Edward on 18 April 1574. His will [see below] records his wish to be buried in the churchyard, as close as possible to his wife, Hellen, and son, Edward. In 1599 he was assessed as a householder of St Stephen Coleman Street at the rate of £3.[1] He was apprenticed before the Company records begin and his master is therefore unknown. He paid his abling fine on 8 February 1571/2 and his beadleship fine on 8 August 1573. He rose quickly through the Yeomanry and was paying for a pattern for the Livery on 30 April 1574 (and again on 10 September 1585). He made a loan to the Company (unrecorded) on which interest was paid to him on 3 December 1591. His apprentices included: Roger Clarkson (Court Day May 1576); anonymous [possibly John Brownlowe] (23 April 1584). On 12 January 1588 an officer was paid for carrying Hugh Capp to the Compter and he was subsequently ‘utterly expulsed & excluded from the Lyverye’ at the Company’s pleasure (9 February). His offence was taking two apprentices without having served as Warden and for ‘contemptously’ refusing to ‘putt away’ his apprentice John Brownlowe.[2] He was disenfranchised from the freedom and liberties of the City forever and Mr Chamberlayne was commanded ‘to shut upp his shop wyndowes’ (5 March). On 30 August the Company paid 12d ‘for summoning Capp before my Lord cheefe Justice’ and on 2 December repeated the payment to the officer for warning Capp before my Lord, paying a further 20d to Mr Tavernere for ‘reading Capp’s peticion’. Despite this long-running dispute, in September 1589 he was elected Junior Warden and on 13 October made a donation of £4 for the ‘benefytt of the house’. He was then able to present apprentices once more: Richard Slater was turned over to him (7 December 1589); an anonymous apprentice (4 November 1592); Ellis Jones’s apprentice Paul Sleigh was turned over to him (3 July 1595); Robert Capp, the son of George, a Nottinghamshire labourer (3 January 1601); John Ridge (8 March 1604); Christopher Rawlidge, who was turned over to Richard Rawlidge; and William Willingham, who was turned over to Edward Stanyan (29 July 1608); John Daniell (20 February 1612).

On 22 August 1578 he brought to the Court a bricklayer he had arrested ‘owt of pawles church yard’ and a labourer, ‘that wrought in our Art at leden halle.’ On 9 July 1586 Raphe Bettes was reimbursed for money he had paid to Hugh Capp which he had spent in Newgate. He was fined: for disobedience (17 February 1575/6, Court Day April 1576, 13 August 1596) but in later years he seems to have enjoyed putting a spoke in the wheel of authority. Having served as Senior Warden for 1596-7, Capp was elected Master for 1600-1. On 3 January 1600/01 the Company was paying for the ‘committing of our Mr to the Compter per my Lord Maior’. It appears that a suit had been brought against Capp by Mr [John] Griffin’s man [William Gard] for which the Company was prepared to pay the charges. He was elected Master again for 1603-04 which seems to have given rise to a dispute with Richard Dungan, the Royal Master Plasterer, presumably over precedence within the Company. On 7 December 1603 a payment was made when the Company went to the Guildhall about ‘the controversye between Mr Capp & Mr Dungan’. This apparently remained unresolved and on Election Day, 15 September 1606, in the absence of Mr Capp, it was recorded: ‘Wheras there was some contencon fell out between Mr Dungane and Mr Cappe at there last mettinge it is therefore this day ordered by this cort of Assistaunce that at the ellecon of the newe master & wardens for the yeare ensuing Mr Cape shall be spared for this cort day to be warned.’ Dungan was duly elected Master for 1606-7. Capp continued to be dissatisfied and engaged, together with Edward Stanyan and Robert Widmore, in further controversy with the Master and Wardens, which was taken to the Court of Aldermen once more.[3] The wheels of bureaucracy were still turning slowly on 29 January 1607/8, until a decision was made in favour of Capp and his fellow-complainants on 18 February 1607/8.[4] In the meantime, the Company became so incensed by his behaviour that it was decided ‘that wheras there was a former order made by this Companye that Mr Capp shoulde be spared for a fine nowe the Mr, wardens & assistauntes warned him to this Courte and requested him to accept his place agayne which he refused & absolutely denyed’ (6 November 1607); which was followed by a payment ‘for serchinge of Mr Capes disfranchisement’ (18 December 1607). Finally, the Company seemed to cave in and even though Capp refused to pay his share of an assessment on 19 February 1607/8, the Master ‘willed him for this tyme to take his ease’.

On 9 September 1611 he was elected Master for the third time. On 20 September the outgoing Master and Wardens had accompanied the Lord Mayor’s officer to impress ‘men to goe to worke for the kings Majestie at Royston’; but once sworn in, Capp and Senior Warden John Langford refused to implement the order and on 10 October were committed to Newgate for contempt of the Court of Aldermen, until they provided sureties for good behaviour and obedience to the order.[5] Such sureties must have been forthcoming as Capp resumed his place as Master. While serving his first term in that office he had been named as the overseer of the will of William Nicholls, suggesting he was seen as a reliable and trustworthy person. Capp’s own will, dated 23 September 1616, was proved on 21 February 1616/17.[6] He left an estate which enabled him to make bequests totalling well over £500. About half consisted of legacies to his grandchildren and other close relatives but the other half was devoted to charitable causes. Beneficiaries included not just the poor of his own parish, St Stephen Coleman Street, but also those of the parishes of St Olaves and St Margaret Lothbury, which were also in Coleman Street Ward. Another large donation of £100 was made to the poor children of Christ’s Hospital and £20 was to be spent on the relief of poor prisoners in London’s prisons – Newgate, Ludgate and the Compters in Poultry and Wood Street. He left £10 between his three overseers, only one of whom was a fellow plasterer, Mr John Allen, ‘in remembrance of his love and goodwill towards them’. Perhaps not surprisingly there is no reference to the Plasterers’ Company.

Capp was the plasterer employed by the Mercers’ Company on several occasions. In 1581 he received 2s 4d for mending a wall over the hall and in 1585 he supplied four trays of mortar for Reynold Hastings and his labourer. More extensive works were undertaken by the Mercers in 1589/90 when they were making alterations to their Armoury House. Capp and his two men were engaged for five weeks and two days at 16d per day, accompanied by two labourers, and he supplied lime, sand, hair and laths. For all of which he received a total of £12 4s 11d.[7] Further work followed in 1604/5 at various houses belonging to the Mercers’ Company, including Whittington College. Capp provide labour and materials for making walls and ceilings in these properties, for which he was paid £10 19s 3d.[8]

CAPP (CAP, CAPPE), Richard (fl. 1552-1571)

A Plasterer who failed to complete his apprenticeship and married after serving only 6 years of his term. The Court of Aldermen ruled on 16 March 1552 that he should be allowed to obtain his freedom of the Company by redemption on payment of £20. Mr Fleetwood, Master of the Company, requested that the Chamberlain of London should return £15 to the Company, saving only £5 to be paid to the use of the commonalty.[9] It was recorded on September 4, 1559 that Richard Capp, a plasterer at Broken Wharf, sought the admission of Bryan Mapperley, about 7 years old, to Christ’s Hospital, for surgery on a lame leg and promised to ‘receive him again after that he is recovered.[10] In Michaelmas term 1567 Capp was one of a number of plasterers accused of intermeddling by the Painter-Stainer John Cooper at the Court of the Kings’ Remembrancer.[11] He was employed by the Royal Works for 34 days in June-July 1569 on routine plastering at Eltham Palace at 12d per day. His name is only recorded in the Company records when he presented Thomas [Blank] as his apprentice in 1571.

CARRELL, Nicholas (d. 1596)

A plasterer buried at St Martin Ludgate on 4 August 1596.[12]

CARRELL (CAROLE, CARTELL), Neale (fl. 1614-15)

A Plasterer who was presented by John Gilson (6 November 1607) and freed 13 January 1614/15. His name appears in the Quarterage Accounts as a member of the Yeomanry in 1614 and is annotated ‘dead’ in 1615. He was working while still an apprentice at the Charterhouse for only one day in July-August 1614 at 20d per day.[13]

CARTER, John (fl. 1618-25)

A Plasterer apprenticed to Henry Stanley (14 June 1611) and freed 30 June 1618. He paid 10s on being ‘chosen into the liverie’ ((22 August 1621) and took Christopher Grave, son of a Cumberland butcher, as an apprentice (14 July 1623). On 7 May 1624 a memorandum recorded that Carter had complained that Edmond Lake, as Assistant, had slandered him by claiming that he kept a bawdy house. Lake had been ordered to apologise to Mrs Carter and to pay Carter 2s in compensation, which he duly did. His name is not listed in the Quarterage Accounts after 1625.

CARTER, William (fl. 1607-33)

A Plasterer who was the son of a Bedfordshire tailor and was apprenticed to Henry Stanley for 8 years (30 November 1599). He was recorded as having run away on 22 March 1606 (4 July 1606) but was turned over to Mr Warden [Thomas] Turner on 26 March 1607 and freed on 16 November 1607. He was among the plasterers paid for work by the Merchant Taylors’ Company in 1607.[14] He was fined for taking an apprentice contrary to the ordinances of the Company and presented Robert Heallinge for 7 years (26 March 1613). His next apprentice was William Hickman, son of a Buckinghamshire butcher, who apprenticed himself to Carter for 7 years on 23 April 1629. Carter remained a member of the Yeomanry until at least 1633.

CASEY, Hugh (fl. 1607)

A Plasterer whose name only appears once, when his apprentice John Rich/Ridge was turned over to Mr [George] Mason (16 November 1607). There is no record of the presentation of the apprentice nor is Hugh Casey listed in the Quarterage Accounts.

CASEY (CASSY), Richard (fl. 1577)

A Plasterer who gained his freedom on May Day 1577, having paid his abling fine 15 February 1576/7, when he also made a donation to the Company ‘for our good wylles’. His name is not recorded in the Quarterage Accounts which survive from 1604. He may be the Richard Casey, a cousin, who was a beneficiary under the will of Thomas Casey I.

CASEY (CASIE, CASYE, CAWSYE), Thomas I (fl. 1577; d. 1603)

A Plasterer who paid his abling fine after serving his apprenticeship with an unknown master on 8 November 1577. He paid for his ‘pattern’ on being chosen for the Livery (10 September 1585); was elected Junior Warden for 1591-2 and served as Senior Warden in place of Mr [Thomas] Gower, deceased, for the remainder of the term from 25 March 1598. His seniority was recognised when he was chosen as one of the Assistants to act as arbitrators in a controversy between Company members (3 December 1595). Rather than signing his name he used his initials ‘T C’ as his mark on documents (23 December 1596). He was fined for ill work on several occasions: (10 December 1581); near Bethlehem (26 November 1590); in Chancery Lane with Mr [Edmund] Essex (23 November 1593); in Crutched Friars (18 February 1602). His only other misdemeanour was to keep ‘his hat on at the standing at Christmas’, for which he paid a fine of 4d (3 January 1601). He presented the following apprentices: Tristram Bibie (25 July 1582); an anonymous apprentice (30 July 1591); Thomas Casey II, his cousin (5 April 1594); John Browne, son of a Suffolk woodmonger (25 July 1599); Toby Lancaster, son of a Buckinghamshire yeoman (3 November 1601). For work carried out between 24 March 1598/9 and 21 May 1599 Casey and his man [presumably Thomas Casey II) were each paid 53s. 5d. at 18d. per day by the Grocers’ Company.[15] In August 1592 he worked alongside Henry Willis, William Evans, ‘Bartholomew’, John Pitcher, John Hooper and Thomas Casey II at St Lawrence Jewry. He was paid at the rate of 16d. per day. Their work involved whiting and colouring the interior and led to the ‘greate Bewetefyinge of the Church’.[16] Casey’s will was made on 29 August 1603 and proved on 8 September of that year.[17] He was generous to his fellow plasterers, leaving 40s to the Assistants and Livery and 20s to the Yeomanry; as well as 20s each to his apprentices, John Browne and Toby Lancaster. His cousin Richard Casey (perhaps the plasterer of that name) received 10s in gold, as did another cousin, William Casey, who also received his best cloak. Apart from his wife, Francis, the chief beneficiary was Thomas Casey II, my cousin and ‘late servant’ who was left ‘all my Woorkinge Tooles whatsoever belonging to my trade both woodde Brasse & Iron’, various household items, pieces of clothing and ‘two chests whereof one to be my little chest which lay my wrightinges in’. 6s 8d was left for the ‘poor folks dwelling in Gutter Lane’ and 20s for neighbours and friends to have a drink after accompanying his body to the grave. The lease of their house in Goldsmiths Alley in Gutter Lane and the residue of the estate was left to his wife, the executrix of his will.

CASEY (CASIE), Thomas II (fl. 1592-1605)

A Plasterer who was both cousin and apprentice of Thomas Casey I. He was presented on 5 April 1594 and his abling fine was paid by his master on 25 July 1601. While still an apprentice he was employed alongside Thomas Casey I and a number of other plasterers at St Lawrence Jewry in August 1592.[18] On 24 September 1602 he presented the Company with a gilt spoon with his initials T.S. [sic] but was sent to the Compter on 13 October that year. He paid fines for his beadleship and lateness on 22 February 1604/5 but was recorded as ‘ded’ in the Quarterage Accounts of 1605.

CHANCELLOR, John (fl. 1614)

A plasterer recorded as working for 3 days at the Charterhouse at 18d per day between February and March 1614.[19]

CHAPMAN, James (fl. 1613-1624)

A Plasterer who was freed on 29 April 1613, with no previous mention of his apprenticeship. He put his mark to a Company memorandum on 23 February 1616/17 and paid his beadleship fine on 30 April 1619. He is listed as a member of the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts until 1624, when his name is crossed through.

CHAPMAN, Thomas (fl. 1619/20-23)

A Plasterer who was presented by Robert Scolthroppe on 5 December 1611 but turned over to John Allen on 25 July 1617. He was freed on 25 January 1619/20 and remained listed in the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts until 1623, with his name crossed through in 1624.

CHAPMAN, William (fl. 1610)

A plasterer of St Giles Cripplegate, recorded at the baptism of a son, George, on 27 March 1610.[20]

CHESHIRE, Henry/Harry (fl. 1580-1588)

A Plasterer who was presented by John Bettes (2 September 1575) but William Brigges paid for his return on 8 November 1577. He paid his abling fine on 22 April 1583 and was fined for absence on 23 April 1584. Although he paid the fine for refusing beadleship on 25 July 1584, he paid the fine on 4 September of that year. Although still an apprentice he was paid for 8 days’ work by the Clothworkers’ Company in 1580-81 at ‘the newe howse in Flete lane’ at the same rate of 16d as the other plasterers.[21] He is last recorded presenting his own apprentice, Francis Brownley, on 30 November 1588.

CHIPPINGE (CHIPPEAING, CHIPPIE, CHIPPINE), Henry (fl. 1614-62)

A Plasterer who was presented by Roger Metcalfe on 23 April 1612 for 8 years, but was turned over to Thomas Atkinson (15 November 1613) and to Paul Sleigh (14 June 1615). He paid his abling fine on 23 April 1619. While still an apprentice he was working at the Charterhouse for 4 days at 20d per day between September and October 1614.[22] On 24 September 1620 a warrant was issued to bring workers defecting from the Royal Works at the Banqueting House before the Privy Council and Chippinge was one of two plasterers named.[23] On 20 February 1626/7 it was the wife of Chippinge who paid part of his arrearage, which he discharged in full on 13 March 1626/7. Chippinge joined the Livery on 9 August 1633. He took Robert Martin, son of a Middlesex collier, as an apprentice for 7 years (23 April 1627; freed 23 April 1634) and when he was freed he took Cuthbert Hopp, son of a Durham glover, as his next apprentice (23 April 1634). He was followed by Appleton Hargitt, son of a Yorkshire shoemaker, apprenticed for 7 years (20 October 1635). Thomas Stringer, apprentice of John Rymell, was turned over to him on 27 May 1636 and Henry Butler, son of a Berkshire slater, apprenticed himself for 7 years on 25 January 1637/8 (freedom not recorded but he was listed on 9 December 1652). They were followed by John Driver, son of an Oxfordshire carpenter (1 December 1642); Thomas Archer, son of a Wiltshire bricklayer (31 October 1644); James Fox, son of a Nottinghamshire labourer (26 January 1645/6; freed 17 February 1652/3); Thomas Scale, son of a Hertfordshire husbandman (19 May 1647); Daniel Gouldstone, son of a Middlesex weaver (2 April 1651); William Duffield, son of a Buckinghamshire husbandman (17 February 1652/3); Joseph Smith, son of a Rutland labourer (24 April 1655); John Bassett, son of a London citizen and shoemaker (25 January 1661/2); all were bound for 7 years.

From 1644-55 Chippinge was employed regularly on routine plastering at Middle Temple, receiving modest sums for workmanship and materials.[24] His apprentices Gouldstone and Duffield worked alongside him in 1653 and 1654. He only twice incurred fines for (unspecified) bad work: 25 January 1641/2 and 31 October 1644. He stood unsuccessfully for election as Junior Warden but when a second election had to be held, he was chosen for 1642-3 (24 & 26 September 1642). He rose to be Senior Warden for 1646-7 (14 September 1646) but was only elected Master for 1652-3 after two failed attempts (9 September 1650, 15 September 1651, September 1652). Chippinge was repaid ‘money disbursed by him on the Company’s behalf’ on 30 November 1643 and 20 February 1643/4, totalling £1 17s 6d. An unspecified payment of 18s 9d was made to him on 30 April 1644 but a ‘payment re Chippin’s business’ on 26 August 1644 seems to have been connected with a dispute concerning the accounts following his year as Junior Warden. ‘Mr Chippine warned the Company before the Lord:Maior about his accounts’ (25 January 1644/5), resulting in his dismissal as an Assistant for falsely accusing the Company of owing him money from the Warden’s account when the reverse was true (13 February 1644/5). It was not until 4 December 1645 that Chippinge apologised to the Court and was readmitted as an Assistant on payment of a fine of 15s. He put his signature to a Company memorandum on 25 July 1660 and is last recorded paying a fine for absence on 9 September 1662.

CLARKE, Bartholomew (fl. 1623; d. 1670)

A Plasterer, son of a Buckinghamshire husbandman, who was apprenticed to James Billing for 9 years (12 August 1614). When Billing died he was turned over to Warden [Robert] Whiting (13 September 1619) until obtaining his freedom on 11 July 1623. He paid his fines for bachelorship (25 January 1623/4) and beadleship (13 June 1628), when he also presented his first apprentice, William Evans II. His admittance to the Livery was accompanied by his signature (11 May 1629), as was a Company memorandum when he was one of those agreeing to pay 40s towards the purchase of a tenement (21 February 1631). While still in the Livery he was one of those appointed to assist the Master and Wardens on Parliamentary business (5 November 1640) and he was elected Junior Warden for 1641-2 the following year (13 September 1641). On 9 September 1644 he was elected Senior Warden for 1644-5 but stood unsuccessfully as Master on 11 September 1648. After his election as Master for 1649-50 (10 September 1649) it was not until 23 April 1651 that his outgoing accounts were settled. Further ructions were recorded in a memorandum referring to Clarke’s arrest of Joseph Kinsman without Company permission, his refusal to pay outstanding fines and contempt for the Company. This resulted in his dismissal from the Court of Assistants until he submitted to Company Ordinances (25 July 1655). At some point Clarke must have done so, as his signature is among those of Assistants agreeing to a memorandum concerning Company debts (25 July 1660) and he was one of the Assistants making up the committee to consider the renewal of the Company charter (13 October 1661). Over a long career he incurred relatively few fines: for absence (26 January 1629); for not enrolling his apprentice (14 September 1635): for lateness (19 October 1643); unspecified (7 December 1646 and 25 January 1661). Only twice was he fined for bad work: in Soper Alley, Without Bishopsgate (7 March 1633); unspecified (3 August 1658). His apprentices were: Antony Scaife, son of a Yorkshire husbandman (14 September 1635); Mathew Howseman, son of a Lancashire smith (13 June 1637); Henry Barnes, apprentice of John Rymell, was turned over to him (8 September 1642; freed 9 May 1643); Thomas Hoxton, son of a Suffolk yeoman (20 April 1643; freed 15 May 1650); Charles Pearce, son of a Norfolk joiner (4 December 1645); William Prescott, son of a Lancashire husbandman (10 September 1649); James Smith, son of a Middlesex bricklayer (19 June 1650; freed 25 July 1657); Robert Wedge, son of an Oxfordshire shoemaker (25 July 1655); Nehemiah Gardiner, son of an Oxfordshire yeoman (5 June 1656).

There is a gap in the Court Minutes after 1663 so the two further apprentices referred to in Clarke’s will (see below) are not recorded. Clarke appears in the Quarterage Accounts as an Assistant from 1661-9 and ‘dead’ in 1670. Clarke’s will, made on 12 September 1670, shortly before his death, was proved on 28 September.[25] After allowing £50 for the costs of his funeral and burial (near his first wife in the churchyard of St Mary Whitechapel), Clarke left nearly £300 in legacies to relatives and friends: £20 each was to go to the plasterers Thomas Hoxton, ex-apprentice and now ‘my loving friend’, Captain Henry Strode and William Evans, ex-apprentice; £5 each to his relatives, Thomas Hoxton’s father, wife and son; £5 each to three apprentices, Richard Dilly (plus one year off his apprenticeship), John Archer and Richard Proctor. £100 was left to the Plasterers’ Company to provide £6 per annum for six Company pensioners. In addition to these monetary legacies, totalling over £400, the residue of the estate, including goods, chattels, household stuff, plate, jewels, rings and money, was left to his wife, Elizabeth, joint executrix with Captain Henry Strode. The overseers appointed were Thomas Hoxton and William Evans and Richard Dilly was the only plasterer among the witnesses.

CLARKE, William I (fl. 1571-91)

A Plasterer who paid for the return of his apprentice, Robert Faulkner, on 1 September 1571. On 2 November 1571 he was fined ‘for setting a foryner to woorke’, i.e. employing someone who was neither officially apprenticed nor a free citizen of London. On 4 September 1572 he presented John Tirrell as his apprentice. He was fined for bad work in Gracious Street (30 April 1574); at an unspecified site (6 May 1575); at the Temple (16 August 1583); for evil work (4 December 1584); at a house in Mugwell Street (27 June 1589); in Foster Lane (November 1589).  William Price was apprenticed to him on 4 August 1581 and Mark Williams (who was six months under age for apprenticeship) on 16 August 1583. Williams was turned over to Henry Bettes on 13 September 1590 and Clarke presented Thomas Clarke as his apprentice on 3 December 1591.

CLARKE, William II (fl. 1626-53)

A Plasterer, the son of a Northamptonshire mercer, who was apprenticed to Anthony Burton for 8 years on 25 July 1618, freed on 11 August 1626 and remained in the Yeomanry until 1640, only paying his beadleship fine on 18 July 1633. On the same date his first apprentice, Thomas Baker, was presented (freed 25 July 1640). Clarke was one of the fifteen men nominated for the Livery, which had become greatly depleted, on 27 June 1640. Christopher Thompson, son of a Sussex clothier, was presented on 25 July 1646; Clarke was fined for freeing him early on 11 August 1653. His apprentice, Richard Wattle (bound for 7 years on 25 July 1640), was turned over to Thomas Lycence (13 October 1646) and although his freedom is not recorded he entered the Livery on 13 June 1651. After 1655 another William Clarke appears in the records and as he is not described as ‘younger’ or ‘junior’, it is assumed that William Clarke II died about this date. He is almost certainly the plasterer of St Thomas the Apostle in Southwark recorded in the parish register at the baptism of a daughter Alice on 16 February 1637/8.[26]

CLARKSON (CLERKESON), John (b. c1569; d. 1629)

A Plasterer of St Alphage whose age was given as 41 years when he was called as a witness in the London Consistory Court in 1610.[27] He was apprenticed to Roger Clarkson on 30 August 1588, paid his abling fine on 25 August 1595 and his beadleship fine on 27 August 1596. He used his initials as his mark, rather than a signature, to Company memoranda. He remained in the Yeomanry until 1615 and then entered the Livery from 1616-20. On 9 November 1621 he asked to be discharged from the Junior Wardenship election the following year on account of ‘weakenes and imbecillitie of his bodie’ and his request was granted on payment of the fine for refusing office. He incurred fines of 3s 4d for ill work in Turnip [?] Alley and 5s for taking work by the lump (24 September 1599); for ill work in Finsbury Fields (24 April 1602); for absence and ill work in Aldersgate Street (25 January 1605/6).  His first apprentice was Solomon Eaton, son of a Derbyshire gentleman, presented for 7 years (25 July 1600) and turned over to Mr [Edmund] Essex (8 March 1603/4); followed by Robert Price, son of a Herefordshire yeoman, for 10 years (12 November 1602). Clarkson paid to have Price freed two [sic] years early so that he could take another apprentice (8 December 1609) but his name does not appear in the Quarterage Accounts. Robert White was presented (23 April 1610); William Shute, son of a Nottinghamshire glover, was presented for 8 years (4 November 1612); Robert Eldred, son of a Lincolnshire husbandman, for 8 years (22 June 1629) but turned over to Richard Rawlidge for the rest of his apprenticeship (26 May 1630). He was listed in the Yeomanry from 1621-28 and continued to enrol apprentices until 1629, which was probably the year of his death.

CLARKSON, Randall (fl. 1586-1632)

A Plasterer of St Michael Bassishaw recorded in the parish registers at the baptism of his daughter Joane (3 July 1586) and the burials of his daughter Joane (5 August 1593) and his wife Anne (7 July 1601).[28] He was presented by John Hopper (16 May 1572) and although his freedom is not recorded, Hopper took another (anonymous) apprentice in 1579 and Clarkson’s name is among those who contributed to the cost of the Parliamentary bill concerning artificers in March 1580/1. He paid his beadleship fine on 1 September 1587 and his pattern for the Livery was paid for on 9 August 1594. He served as Junior Warden 1602-3, Senior Warden 1607-8 and Master 1616-17. His mark, a ‘T’, was used to sign Company memoranda (23 February 1616/17 and 23 May 1619). On 13 September 1619 he made a present to the Company of a long tablecloth and twelve napkins. He presented anonymous apprentices (3 July 1584; 10 June 1591); Robert Hall was turned over to him from Peter Sarson (17 February 1586/7). He was fined for not enrolling an apprentice turned over to him by John Hopper (28 November 1589). John Jackson I turned over Henry Lawe to him (8 November 1594). Christopher Clarkson was presented 13 August 1596. He paid for the turning over of John Griffyn’s boy [Lewis Yeop] (24 November 1603). William Bennett, son of a Norfolk labourer, was apprenticed to him for 8 years (7 September 1604); Thomas Hodes of Derbyshire (5 June 1605); Anthony Baldwin (30 July 1610); John Tey, son of a Staffordshire husbandman (29 April 1613); Edmund Perwitch, from Leicestershire, for 8 years (4 August 1618 and freed 22 May 1626, when Clarkson was fined for not enrolling him); Robert Smith, son of a Derbyshire husbandman, for 7 years (5 May 1620); John Standford, son of a Berkshire husbandman, for 7 years (25 January 1625/6 and freed 29 May 1633); Henry Coleman, son of a Leicestershire painter (23 April 1627). On 29 January 1590/1 Clarkson and Nicholas Bolland were fined for bad work at the upper end of Grub Street. Ill work in Chancery Lane incurred another fine (4 September 1592). He was fined for absence (29 November 1598); for ill work (8 May 1601); for disobedience (18 September 1601); for lateness (8 March 1603/4); for evil work in Great St Bartholomews with Hugh Morris (27 June 1606). Clarkson received a gratuity from the Company on 13 October 1631 and on 23 April 1632 was awarded a quarterly pension of 5s. because he ‘hath by the hand of God become poore’, provided he took no more apprentices. His name last appears in the Quarterage Accounts, still listed as an Assistant, in 1628.

CLARKSON, Robert (fl. 1589)

A Plasterer who presented an anonymous apprentice on 31 October 1589.

CLARKSON, Roger (fl. 1576-1603)

A Plasterer who was presented by Hugh Capp (April 1576) and freed on 22 April 1583. He was fined for refusing to pay the beadleship fine on 25 July 1584 and for taking work from James Stanley on 17 December 1585. He presented John Clarkson as his apprentice (30 August 1588) and John Winter, son of a Nottinghamshire yeoman, for 8 years (11 February 1602/3).

CLAY, Adam (fl. 1615-48)

A Plasterer of St Andrew Holborn recorded in the parish registers at the burial of his wife Joane on 25 October 1615. Son of a Derbyshire yeoman, he had been apprenticed to John Langford (24 June 1602) and freed on 9 July 1610. He was fined for lateness (7 August 1612, 13 October 1612) and for bad work in Fetter Lane (10 February 1614/15). He paid his beadleship fine on 24 August 1612 and made a free gift to the Company towards the rebuilding of the Corner House on 9 December 1631. His apprentice Richard Whitehead, son of a Buckinghamshire gentleman, was presented on 2 June 1629 and freed on 2 February 1636/7. He is last recorded paying arrearage of quarterage on 25 October 1648.

CLAYTON (CLAXTON, CLEATON, CLEYTON), Robert (fl. 1595-1627/8)

A Plasterer who was apprenticed to Mr (John) Laycock (17 February 1575/6) and paid his abling fine and a donation to the poor 7 years later (8 March 1582/3). He paid the fine for refusing beadleship on 25 July 1584 but paid it on 4 September that year. He paid for his pattern for the Livery (23 August 1594) but is recorded as a member of the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts from 1604-27. He signed his name to a Company memorandum (23 February 1616/17). On 10 March 1595/6 he was released from prison after an unspecified misdemeanour. He was fined for absence from a Company funeral (1 August 1601) and again for absence (1 March 1601/2); for lateness (13 October 1618). His apprentices were: Solomon Hughes (11 October 1590); William Preece (24 July 1594); Robert Clayton, son of an Essex tanner, for 7 years (23 April 1599); William Parker (30 January 1606/7); John Smith I, son of a Kentish yeoman for 8 years (30 June 1615). Clayton worked for a number of the London companies: he was one of several men working for the Clothworkers’ Company on ‘the newe buildinge of the parlour’ in 1594. In October and November of that year he was paid at the rate of 16d for 14 days, while ‘his man’ (presumably a journeyman) received the same rate for 12 days.[29] In 1607 he was among those paid by the Merchant Taylors’ Company for beautifying their hall prior to a royal visit.[30] He received 22s 11d from the Skinners’ Company in 1609.[31] A payment of 2s was made to Clayton by consent of the Company (15 October 1625), an unspecified payment (25 July 1626) and charity (24 October 1626 and 14 April 1627). His name is crossed through in the Quarterage Accounts for 1628 so he is assumed to have died in 1627 or 1628.

CLEMENT, Robert (fl. 1605)

A plasterer paid £5 5s 4d for routine plastering work in the new building at Syon House in April 1605.[32]

CLEVELAND, George (fl. 1571)

A Plasterer fined by the Company for disobedience on 2 November 1571.

CLOWES, William (fl. 1614-25)

A Plasterer who was apprenticed to Richard Cooke (26 May 1607), freed (24 April 1615) and remained in the Yeomanry throughout his career. His name does not appear in the Quarterage Accounts after 1625.

COBB (COB), Richard (fl. 1590-1619)

A Plasterer apprenticed to Thomas Gower (6 April 1582) and freed (23 January 1589/90). He paid his beadleship fine and presented George Newman as his apprentice (10 January 1594/5). He paid for his pattern for the Company livery on 20 November 1598 and remained in the Livery for the rest of his career. Further apprentices followed: Thomas Sharp for 7 years (27 January 1598/9); William Sutton, son of a Derbyshire yeoman, for 7 years (23 April 1600); Robert Cooper I (freed 3 May 1615); Thomas Barnewell, son of a Northamptonshire yeoman (30 April 1616). On 4 March 1611 Hugh Miller was fined for buying an unnamed apprentice from Cobb, contrary to the Company’s ordinances. Cobb was one of the London plasterers despatched to work at Edinburgh Castle ahead of James I’s visit and received £24 Scottish ‘for transporting of [him] hame’ on 9 June 1617.[33] He is listed as ‘died’ in the Quarterage Accounts for 1619.

COCKE (COCK, COCKS, COX), Romayne (fl. 1607-23)

A Plasterer of St Saviour Southwark, recorded at the baptism of a daughter, Catherine, on 2 August 1608.[34] Although Cocke, son of a Hertfordshire yeoman, was presented by Edmund Essex for 9 years (25 September 1600), a Company memorandum of 15 June 1608 recorded that ‘it is ordered that Roman Cock shalbe made free of this Companie having attained his freedome of this Citty by meanes of the Lords of his Majesties privy Councell and by their letters directed to Sir Henry Rowe now Lord Mayor of the Citty of London: and was further admitted by a Court of Aldermen of Guildhall not by his service but by redempcion’. Having paid his beadleship fine (13 August 1612), Cocke paid additionally to avoid serving one year as a journeyman (19 May 1615). On the latter date he presented John Morley II of Lancashire for 8 years but turned him over to Thomas Widmore on 1 March 1615/16. In 1619-20 Cocke was employed, with Matthew Barrett, by the King’s Works at Newmarket, on what must have been a large amount of routine plastering, for which they received £8 17s 6d.[35] His name is not listed in the Quarterage Accounts after 1623.

COGAN (COLGAN, CONGALL, COWGAN), Peter (fl. 1580-88)

A Plasterer who was fined for taking carpenter’s work (10 February 1580/1) and who paid his beadleship fine on 13 October 1582. He presented Thomas Gwyn as his apprentice (31 May 1583), followed by Nicholas Proctor (7 November 1583). He was fined for absence on 3 July 1584 and it seems likely that he returned to Ireland, where Petrus Cowgan, plasterer, was admitted to the freedom of the City of Dublin in 1588.[36]

COGGAN, Richard (fl. 1589)

A Plasterer fined for absence on 12 September 1589.

COLES (COALES, COOLES), Henry (fl. 1625-50)

A Plasterer, son of a Warwickshire grocer, who was apprenticed to Walter Elsmore for 8 years (30 June 1618). Following the death of Elsmore, Coles was made free by his new master, William Nicholls, who also paid a fine for freeing him before his term was completed (3 February 1625/6). Nicholas Cooke, son of a Berkshire cook, apprenticed himself to Coles for 8 years (26 May 1631), despite having become the apprentice of Edward Stanyan in 1630; he was free by 14 October 1639. Thomas Barber, son of a London translator, became his apprentice for 8 years; but this was cancelled as he ran away after only one year’s service (3 September 1639). William Worrall, son of a Warwickshire wheelwright, became his apprentice for 8 years (16 June 1642). Coles was fined for absence (21 November 1639) and for bad work (2 December 1647). His name was among those required to take part in the next Search (20 September 1650) but does not appear again in the Court Minutes. Coles remained in the Yeomanry throughout his career.

COLLINS (COLLENS), Richard (fl. 1610; d. 1637)

A Plasterer of St Giles Cripplegate, recorded at the baptism of a daughter, Elizabeth, on 1 August 1613.[37] He was presented (anonymously) by Thomas Russell (25 July 1603) and freed one year early from his apprenticeship (9 July 1610). He was listed as a member of the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts from 1609-23. Robert, son of Richard, Citizen and Plaisterer of London, deceased, was apprenticed to John Stephens on 4 August 1637, was turned over to his mother on 14 March 1637/8 and freed on 11 June 1646. Richard’s widow, Anne Collins, was last recorded paying quarterage on 13 October 1638.

COLLINS (COLLENS), Stephen (fl. 1604)

A plasterer of St Giles Cripplegate, recorded at the baptism of a son, Stephen, on 22 July 1604.[38]

COOKE, Richard (fl. 1594-1623)

A Plasterer apprenticed to Thomas Browne (4 March 1586/7) who paid his abling fine on 24 April 1594. His beadleship fine was paid on 23 August 1594 and he presented his first apprentice, William Lakyn, son of a Leicestershire yeoman, on 25 January 1599/1600. He was fined for ill work in Grays End Lane (together with Richard Browne I) on 2 August 1600. On his own, he was fined for taking work ‘by task’ from a carpenter and ill work in Fetter Lane (3 January 1600/01); for ill work at Tower Hill (1 March 1601/2); for working contrary to Company Orders (26 November 1606); for unspecified ill work (27 June 1609); for setting a ‘forriner’ to work in Lincoln’s Inn (3 November 1609); for bad work in Whitecross Street (2 August 1615). He presented David Fenley (25 April 1605); John Hand (25 January 1605/6); William Clowes (26 May 1607). Thomas Cooke, who was freed by patrimony (30 April 1628) was probably his son. He is listed as a member of the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts until 1623 but his name was crossed through in 1624.

COOPER (COWPER), Richard (fl. 1619-33)

A Plasterer from Bedfordshire who served his apprenticeship with Bartholomew Holmes (30 September 1612) and paid his abling fine on 3 December 1619. He was fined for bad work (6 September 1620); for absence (16 November 1630). He is listed in the Quarterage Accounts as one of the Yeomanry until 1633 (when the records cease) and his name does not appear again in the Court Minutes after this date.

COOPER, Robert I fl. 1614/15-33)  

Cooper’s apprenticeship to Richard Cobb is not recorded but he was freed on 3 May 1615 and paid his beadleship fine on 8 August 1616. He is listed as Robert Cooper senior on 12 March 1623/4 but does not appear to have been related to Robert Cooper II. On 21 March 1631/2 John Wilson, apprentice of Thomas Grigg, was turned over to Cooper because of his master’s assaults and threats to his life. Cooper was listed as one of the Yeomanry from 1614-33.

COOPER, Robert II (fl. 1616-25)

A Plasterer who was apprenticed to Henry Sheppey (9 July 1610), obtained his freedom (1 August 1617) and paid his beadleship fine (4 August 1618). He was fined for lateness (13 October 1618). He remained in the Yeomanry until his death in 1625. Administration of his estate was granted to his sister, Margaret, on 29 August 1625.[39]

CORBYN (CORBEY, CORBY), Hugh (fl. 1611-36)

The son of a Somerset mason who was apprenticed to John Allen for 8 years (5 May 1603). When he was freed on 20 September 1611 it was recorded that he had been apprenticed to Raphe Guest and after turned over to John Allen but there is no record of this in the Court Minutes. Corbyn did not pay the fine to avoid serving one year as a journeyman until 29 August 1617, when he presented Augustine Parker, son of a Somerset husbandman, for 8 years. Parker was subsequently turned over to Mr [John] Allen (25 July 1620). Corbyn was fined for bad work in the Old Bailey (2 August 1615); at The Purse in the Old Bailey (13 June 1617). He remained in the Yeomanry and is last recorded paying arrearage of quarterage on 25 January 1635/6.

CORDEN, Henry (fl. 1597-1600)

A Plasterer who was presumably the anonymous apprentice presented by Raphe Bettes on 27 June 1589. Corden paid his abling fine (25 July 1597 and 25 January 1597/8) and his beadleship fine (25 July 1600) but is not recorded in the Quarterage Accounts, which survive from 1604.

CORDEN (CORDEYN), Robert (fl. 1588-1600)

A Plasterer who was apprenticed to Richard Kelly (12 September 1579) and paid his abling fine (28 June 1588). He is last recorded paying his beadleship fine on 25 July 1600.

COTTERILL, Richard (fl. 1621-58)

A Plasterer who was presented by Richard Fisher (26 April 1611) but whose freedom went unrecorded. He paid his beadleship fine on 5 June 1621, when Widow Scolthroppe was ordered to pay him £4 and take back her apprentice from him. Fisher, his ex-master, was fined for disgraceful speeches against Cotterill on 20 August 1622. He was one of those who donated a free gift to the Company on 13 October 1631. Although he never rose above the Yeomanry,  Cotterill was referred to as ‘Mr’ when fined for bad work at Tower Hill (4 September 1623); for bad work and taking work of a carpenter (13 August 1657) . On 29 August 1626 he presented Lionel Cave, son of a Northamptonshire husbandman, for 8 years; John Smith, son of a Warwickshire yeoman, was presented for 7 years (25 July 1629); Arthur Shearer, son of a Shropshire tailor, for 7 years (9 August 1631 and freed 27 August 1638); William Luckcraft, son of Hugh, citizen and Clothworker of London, for 8 years (27 November 1650 and freed 11 May 1658); his son, Edward, was freed by patrimony (25 July 1651). He was fined for bad work (9 August 1631); for bad work by the Customs House (15 June 1632) and for allowing ‘his man’ to work before he was turned over (13 August 1647). On 11 May 1658 he was fined for freeing his man [Luckcraft] early.

COXE (COCKS), John (fl. 1576-80)

A Plasterer who appears to have been apprenticed to Simon Betaugh, as paid for Coxe’s return on 30 April 1574. 6It was recorded that Coxe had been was freed at Candlemas [2 February] 1576 (13 October 1576). He paid his abling fine on 2 August 1577 and made an unspecified payment of 6s on 24 June 1580.

He was not listed as an apprentice when he was employed by the Royal Works at Greenwich Palace for 24 days in June-July 1569 at 12d, engaged in new plastering and blacking the tennis play [indoor tennis court] and plastering and whiting in various lodgings.[40]

COXE, Roger (fl. 1624-28)

A Plasterer, son of a Gloucestershire weaver, who was presented by Richard Slater for 8 years on 29 April 1618. Widow Slater was fined for not enrolling her apprentice, Roger Coxe, on 4 May 1625. He was listed in the Yeomanry from 1624-28.

CRIPPLE, William (1624-32)

A Plasterer, son of a London citizen and Woodmonger, apprenticed to John Holdipp for 8 years (1 September 1615) and freed 19 March 1623/4. An arrearage payment was made on his behalf by Robert Betaugh (13 October 1627). His name is listed in the Quarterage Accounts as a member of the Yeomanry from 1623-28 and is annotated ‘died’ in 1632.

CROMPTON (CRAMPTON), Ellis (fl. 1584; d.1607)

A Plasterer who was apprenticed to Cornelius Hande (15 February 1576/7) and gained his freedom, making a contribution to the poor, on 8 May 1584. On 2 July 1585 he paid for the return of William Crompton, from Cornelius Hande for the remainder of his indenture. He paid his beadleship fine (18 August 1587) and was fined for ‘unlawfull’ work, for turning over an apprentice and for presenting an apprentice (11 October 1590); for ill work (3 December 1591); for ill work by the Stocks (7 March 1597/8); for ill work in a garden in Finsbury Field (13 October 1600); ill work in St Thomas Apples [Apostle] (29 January 1601/2); an unspecified fine (28 July 1602); for ill work in The Minories (24 November 1603, 17 August 1604 and 22 February 1604/5); for keeping an apprentice against Company Orders (26 March 1607). He was paid 19s. 3d. in 1593-94 by St James Garlickhithe for materials, workmanship and labourers at the new buildings at Dunghill Stairs.[41] He presented Evan Reynolds (24 July 1594); Griffen Oliver (17 March 1594/5); Jeffery Powell, son of a Montgomeryshire yeoman (28 July 1602); Robert Noden, son of a Derbyshire yeoman for 8 years (19 May 1603). He was listed among the Yeomanry until 1607 but was replaced by Widow Crompton in 1608. She received a benevolence from the Company on 28 April 1609 but does not appear again in the records.

CROMPTON, William (fl. 1590-91)

A plasterer who was presented by Cornelius Hande (30 August 1583) but was returned to Ellis Crompton for the remainder of his term (2 July 1585). He did not complete his apprenticeship and on 21 July 1591 he paid the Company 20s for their favour in suffering him to work of himself without their molestation, which was granted at the instance and request of Mr Wilford, Chamberlain, Mr Town Clerk and Mr Common Serjeant. He was living in St Martin Vintry when he was granted a licence by the Bishop of London to marry Alice Carter, a spinster of St Olave Hart Street on 17 April 1590.[42]

CRUSE (CREWES), John (fl. 1595; d. 1603-4)

A Plasterer who was presented by John Morrey (30 August 1588), was turned over to John Hinde (11 September 1591) and made free and paid his abling fine (14 October 1595). On 13 August 1596 he was ‘fetched out of the Compter’ and he paid his beadleship fine on 10 September that year. After making a part payment towards the fines he owed the Company, he agreed to clear the debt ‘or Mr Dungan is to take some order for the same’ (23 February 1598/9). On 8 February 1599/1600 the Company recorded payments for several visits to the Lord Mayor about Cruse. He presented Percival Ramsey, son of a Yorkshire yeoman, for 7 years (1 August 1601) and was fined (with William North) for ill work and evil speeches (3 September 1601). Cruse made his will as a resident of the parish of St Botolph without Aldersgate on 14 September 1603; it was proved in May 1604.[43] He and his wife, Margaret, had no children but a legacy of £3 was left to his nephew, James Crewes, resident in Ireland. Other relatives received items of clothing and his wife was named as residuary legatee and executrix.

CUSACK, Nicholas (fl. 1585-1605)

A Plasterer who was fined for ill work with John Slared on 20 February 1594/5. He is probably to be identified with Nicholas Cusacke, plasterer, admitted to the Freedom of the City of Dublin in 1605.[44] [It seems likely that two entries referring to Robert Cusack are the result of clerkly error confusing the two men and make more sense within Nicholas Cusack’s career: On 16 June 1586 he paid to take over Mr [Simon] Betaugh’s apprentice, Thomas Smyth, and promised to ask for no more apprentices until Smyth’s term was completed. He paid for his pattern for the Livery (12 September 1585) and for a Company dinner (17 September 1585). Robert Cusack can hardly have been entering the Livery the same year in which he was freed and before he paid his beadleship fine.]

CUSACK (KEWSAKE), Robert (fl. 1585; d. 1595)

A Plasterer apprenticed to Thomas Kellie (13 October 1577) who paid for his admission and the poor (25 January 1584/5). He paid his beadleship fine (1 September 1587) and the fine for ill work which was imposed on Peter Dungan’s man and Patrick Browne’s man (22 April 1589). Fines for ill work were imposed on 4 September 1592, working on his own at Holborn Conduit; and together with Edmund Harrison in the garrets at Mr Carr’s without Temple Bar; this latter was repeated on 7 February 1592/3. Unspecified ill work incurred a further fine (18 May 1593). William North was presented by Cusack on 21 June 1593. An admonition is recorded following his death in St Sepulchre in May 1595.[45]


[1] TNA E 179/146/325.

[2] LMA COL/CA/01/01/023, f. 537.

[3] LMA COL/CA/01/01/031 (1607-9), f 99v.

[4] LMA COL/CA/01/01/031 (1607-9), ff 154 and 164v-166v.

[5] LMA COL/CA/01/01/033 (1610-12), f 194.

[6] TNA PROB 11/129, ff. 362v-63r.

[7] Mercers’ Company Archive, Renter Wardens’ Accounts 1577-1603, ff. 81r, 148r, 217r.

[8] Mercers’ Company Archive, Renter Wardens’ Accounts 1603–1624, ‘Dischardge. Extraordinary payments’, unpaginated.  

[9] LMA COL/CA/01/01/014 (1552-5), ff. 50v-51r..

[10] George A T Allan (ed), Christ’s Hospital Admissions, Volume I, 1554-99, London (1937), p. 8.

[11] TNA E159/355 rots. 212, 213, 215.

[12] LMA P69/MTN1/A/002/MS 10213.

[13] LMA ACC/1876/F/09/48.

[14] LMA CLC/L/MD/D/003/MS 34048/009.

[15] LMA CLC/L/GH/D/001/MS 11571/008, f. 629r.

[16] LMA P69/LAW1/B/008/MS 02593/001.

[17] TNA PROB 11/102.

[18] LMA P69/LAW1/B/008/MS 02593/001.

[19] LMA ACC/1876/F/09/48.

[20] LMA P69/GIS/A/002/MS 06419/001.

[21] The Clothworkers’ Company: CL/D/5/3 (Quarter & Renter Wardens’ Accounts 1578-98).

[22] LMA ACC/1876/F/09/48.

[23] J R Dasent et al (eds), Acts of the Privy Council, London (1890-1964), vol. 37, p. 282; cited in H Colvin et al, History of the King’s Works, Vol IV, London (1982), p. 329.

[24] Middle Temple Treasurer’s Account Books from 1641-46 (4) to 1654-55 (13), passim.

[25] TNA PROB 11/333.

[26] LMA P71/TMS 1358A.

[27] Loreen L Giese (ed.), London Consistory Court Depositions, 1586-1611: List and Indexes, London Record Society, 32 (1995), pp. 242-3.

[28] LMA P69/MIC1/A/001/MS 06986.

[29] The Clothworkers’ Company (Quarter & Renter Wardens’ Accounts): CL/D/5/3 (1578-98).

[30] LMA CLC/L/MD/D/003/MS 34048/009.

[31] LMA CLC/L/SE/D/007 MS 30727/5 (Skinners’ Company: Renter Wardens’ Accounts - Receipts & Payments 1596-1617).

[32] Northumberland Estates Archive: U.I.8b.

[33] John Imrie & John G Dunbar (eds), Accounts of the Masters of Works, Vol. II: 1616-1649, Edinburgh (1982), p. 79.

[34] LMA P92/SAV 3001.

[35] TNA AO 1/2422/50

[36] C P Curran, Dublin Decorative Plasterwork of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, London (1967), p. 99.

[37] LMA P69/GIS/A/002/MS 06419/002.

[38] LMA P69/GIS/A/002/MS 06419/001.

[39] LMA DL/AL/C/001/MS 09050/005, f. 202v

[40] Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson A.195c, ff. 137r-138v.

[41] LMA P69/JS2/B/005/MS 04810/001.

[42] George J. Armytage (ed.), Allegations for Marriage Licences issued by the Bishop of London, 1520 to 1610, extracted by Col. Joseph Lemuel Chester (Harleian Society 25- 26 (1887), Part I, p. 186.

[43] LMA DL/AL/C/002/MS 09051/005/f. 481v.

[44] C P Curran, Dublin Decorative Plasterwork of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, London (1967), p. 99.

[45] LMA DL/C/B/001/MS 09168/016, f. 46v.