Gazetteer of Plasterers - W

WAIGHT (WAYTE), Edward I, the Elder (fl. 1600; died 1641)

A Plasterer who was presented by Henry Towson (20 October 1592). Waight paid his fines for abling (13 October 1600) and beadleship (1 August 1601); and two unspecified fines followed (29 July 1603). He was fined for evil work at Cow Lane (22 June 1608) and contributed 2s 6d as a member of the Yeomanry to the cost of the Company lawsuit in Chancery concerning the corner house in Wood Street (2 February 1608/9). Waight was elected to the Livery (31 July 1612) and served as Junior Warden for 1619-20 (29 September 1619) and as Senior Warden for 1622-23 (9 September 1622). There was some reluctance to accept election to the Mastership for 1624-25. Robert Whiting first chose to pay £5 rather than serve and Waight followed his example when he was the next in line (11 September 1624). On 3 February 1626 the Company spent money at The Swan in Dowgate with Whiting and Waight, concerning Mr [Richard] Talbott. Waight contested the election for Master unsuccessfully (11 September 1626) but was elected for 1627-28 (10 September 1627). He was one of the Assistants guaranteeing a bond to enable the Company to pay for a ‘loan’ to supply His Majesty’s present wants (4 January 1627/8). The Company decided that Martin Eastbourne’s ‘distasteful words’ were not especially directed at Waight, as the latter had claimed (24 April 1630). On 25 January 1631/2 the Company reimbursed him for money he had laid out about the house. As one of the Assistants Waight put his mark to the memorandum concerning the loan for the rebuilding of the Company’s houses in Wood Street (23 April 1631). He was elected Master again, for 1633-4 (9 September 1633). On 26 January 1634/5 Waight made a gift to the Company of a silver-gilt salt with a cover, weighing 20 ozs. 

Over his long career in the Company Waight presented many apprentices: Ezacias Ridge (6 November 1605); Thomas Godsall (27 August 1608); Augustine Best, son of a London coachman, for 10 years (6 August 1619; freed 23 April 1635); Walter Hussey of Gloucester for 7 years and James Orbell, son of an Essex husbandman, for 10 years (3 December 1619; Hussey was freed as the apprentice of Thomas Widmore on 2 February 1626/7); John Elmes, son of a London Merchant Taylor, for 8 years (24 April 1620; freed 13 June 1628 as the apprentice of Garrett Hayward); William Johnson, son of a Lincolnshire husbandman, for 7 years (15 October 1623); James Thompson, son of a Bedfordshire draper (29 March 1627); Samuel Webb, son of a London Glover, for 8 years (25 January 1631/2; freed 4 February 1639/40); Thomas Denman, son of an Essex clerk, for 8 years (2 May 1634; turned over to John Waight and freed on 4 May 1642). In addition to these apprentices, three of Edward’s sons became Company members: John, Henry and Edward II. John and Henry were freed by patrimony, although Henry did not pursue a career as a plasterer; but Edward II was apprenticed to his older brother John. 

Waight made his will on 31 December 1604 as a parishioner of St Sepulchre without Newgate. It was a detailed document containing some surprising bequests. To his wife he left annuities of £13 and £10 to be derived from the leasehold properties on the east side of the passage into St John’s Court aka Sempringham Court, including his ‘now dwelling house’. This would be the equivalent of one-third of the estate, according to the Custom of London. In addition, she was to be given a choice of household goods to furnish one room in the house for ‘her own use and occasions’. As for his offspring, Waight made it clear that he had ‘already imparted unto my children their full portions due unto them out of my estate, whereby no just claim can be by them made to the remainder thereof’ and accordingly ‘my desire is to distribute and dispose the same according to myne owne discretion and where most need shall require’. Henry, a Clerk, was left a black mourning cloak and the messuage or tenement occupied by Rickman for ten years. John was left one shilling, for a remembrance of his father. The youngest son, Edward, received the messuage or tenement occupied by John Brampton in Chick Lane, St Sepulchre, for the remainder of the lease; plus furnishings (a feather bed and bolster, bedding, the half-headed bedstead in the upper chamber, a pair of hempen sheets, fire irons, creepers, a fire shovel and tongs and two joined stools); and clothing (a brown/blue cloak and a brown cloth suit). The Plasterers’ Company were to receive £3 provided they accompanied his body to church for burial, to buy linen for their use in the hall. Unusually, his ‘ould Master, Henry Towson’ outlived Waight and was to receive 10s; as was William Sisson, a gardener. The residue of the estate was left to his son-in-law and executor, Thomas Wallis, and his daughter Mary. The overseers were a loving kinsman and a loving friend, to whom he left 20s each. The will was proved on 5 June 1641. [1] The Court minutes bear witness to the fulfilment of Waight’s wishes. The Company received a legacy of £9 [more than the £3 stipulated in the will] from Waight’s executors towards the purchase of linen (2 July 1641), which they celebrated (11 August 1641) and spent on linen ‘according to the legacy of Mr Waight’ (13 September 1641). 

WAIGHT, Henry (fl. 1625-41)

When Henry was freed by patrimony as the son of Edward Waight, he was described as ‘A Scholler of Cambridge’ (23 April 1625). Although he continued to pay quarterage as a member of the Company he was described in his father’s will of 1641 as a Clerk (see above). His father left him a black mourning cloak and the messuage or tenement occupied by Rickman for ten years.

WAIGHT, John (fl. 1625; died 1648)

A Plasterer who was freed by patrimony, together with his brother Henry, as the son of Edward Waight I (23 April 1625). His beadleship fine was paid (13 October 1628) and after being nominated for the Livery he was duly elected (18 & 25 July 1633). Waight was elected Junior Warden for 1643-44 (11 September 1643) and the following year he received a repayment from the Warden’s account (13 October 1644). Robert Langley was fined for reviling and scandalizing with ill language Mr John Waight, a loving member of this Company (25 July 1645). Waight twice stood unsuccessfully in the election for Senior Warden (3 September 1645 & 14 September 1646) but was chosen to hold the post for 1647-8 (6 September 1647). However, Waight died during his period of office (24 April 1648). Waight’s apprentices were numerous: Thomas Dodson, son of a Yorkshire edge-tool maker, for 7 years (24 September 1625); Thomas Orpin, son of a Middlesex clothworker, for 7 years (8 November 1627; freed 28 November 1634); Edward Waight II, his younger brother, for 9 years (25 April 1626; freed 24 September 1634); Edward Waight III, John’s son, was apprenticed to his father (4 May 1642); Thomas Denman, formerly apprenticed to Edward Waight I, was turned over to John and freed (4 May 1642); John Cookson, son of a London Clerk, for 8 years (23 April 1646); William Draycott, son of a Middlesex yeoman, for 7 years (19 May 1647). After John’s death, his son Thomas was apprenticed to his widow, Jane Waight, for 7 years (25 July 1649) and Mrs Waight was fined for not enrolling her man when John Bune was freed (11 August 1653). John Waight made his will on 28 March 1648, leaving an estate of about £360 to be divided into three equal shares, according to the Custom of London. One third was left to his wife, Jane; another third to be divided between his five sons (Edward, George, Thomas, John and Nathaniel) and one daughter, ‘providing my son Edward doe allow unto my Executor for the goods and other thinges which he hath already received of me out of his share’. The final third was made up of legacies: £30 to his wife; £30 to his daughter; £15 each to his four sons, excluding Edward; and 12s to the poor of the parish. Probate was granted on 17 October 1648. [2]

[John Waight’s son John may be the apprentice of John Walter who was turned over anonymously, without presentation, to Rowland Brock (20 February 1643/4) and freed on 18 May 1646.]

WALFLEET (WALLFLETE), John (fl. 1576-1621)

A Plasterer who presented Thomas Oldham as his apprentice (13 October 1576). He paid an unspecified fine (15 February 1676/7) and his contribution to the Company’s Parliamentary bill concerning artificers (- March 1580/1). He was fined again, for non-payment of quarterage (28 July 1581). Walfleet’s next apprentice was Thomas --- (23 April 1584) and he paid to take over William Benson from Cornelius Hand (2 July 1585). Walfleet was fined for ill work (16 November 1586) and he paid to have Edward Echell turned over to himself from John Betaugh (17 February 1586/7). William Jackson was next presented (31 January 1588/9); followed by Thomas Frye (6 February 1595/6). On 19 November 1596 Walfleet was admitted and sworn in as the Company Beadle. He presented another apprentice [name lost as page torn] (18 February 1597/8) and appears to have been replaced as Beadle by John Tyrrell. Thomas Wardson, son of an Essex yeoman, was presented for 8 years (8 May 1601); Anthony Armstead was apprenticed, when Walfleet also made his contribution toward the cost of renewing the Company’s charter (1 August 1605). He was fined for brawling in an alehouse and arresting a brother without leave (28 April 1607). When Armstead was freed, Walfleet presented John Smyth from Sussex for 7 years (30 July 1613); followed by Humphrey Fevyn, son of a Shropshire yeoman, for 7 years (12 August 1614). Walfleet received a payment of benevolence (26 January 1617/18) and this was subsequently paid to Widow Walfleet from 29 March 1622. Walfleet’s name was listed in the Quarterage Accounts until 1621, when it was crossed through. On 13 October 1641 Isabell Walfleet became one of the recipients of John Benson’s charity.

WALLER, James (fl. 1568)

A plasterer who was working alongside Richard Tyffyn at Lincoln’s Inn from February-May 1568, carrying out routine plastering on the hall. [3]

WALSTON (WALSTOWE), William (fl. 1610-30)

A Plasterer who was the son of a Hertfordshire glover, apprenticed to Robert Saunders for 8 years (1 March 1601/2). While still an apprentice Walston was one of the team working alongside his master for the Merchant Taylors in October 1602, when he received 9s for six days’ work, new whiting the hall. [4] Walstone was freed (4 June 1610) and put his mark to the Company memorandum concerning apprentices (23 February 1616/17). In 1614 he was employed at the Charterhouse in August and September of that year, when he worked 35½ days at 2s per day, earning £3 11s. [5] Walston was last recorded in the Court minutes paying arrearage of quarterage on 24 April 1630 and he was noted as ‘died’ in the Quarterage Accounts for 1631.

WALTER (WALTERS), John (fl. 1617; died 1660)

A Plasterer presented by Francis Broadbent (30 April 1610) and freed on 29 May 1617. On 11 March 1628/9 the Clerk was paid for attending committees at the Guildhall concerning John Walter and on 23 April 1629 a further sum was ‘spent about John Walter’s business in attending the Committees several times’. Walter signed his name when he paid for the pattern for his Livery gown and made a gift to the Company (2 June 1629). Mr [Thomas] Hothersole was fined for ‘evill words against John Walter’ (25 July 1629). Walter was reimbursed for the fees he had paid when appearing in Star Chamber to give information ‘touching the Irish land’ (16 June 1636). He was elected Junior Warden for 1636-7 (12 September 1636). £10 was borrowed from him for the use of the Company (15 February 1637/8), on which interest was paid (16 June 1642). Having stood unsuccessfully as Senior Warden for 1639-40 (9 September 1639), Walter was elected to the post for 1640-41 (14 September 1640). He was not elected when he stood for the post of Master for 1643-4 (11 September 1643). From 23-26 July 1644 Walter was working with other London plasterers at Donibristle House, Fife for the Earl of Moray. It was Walter who signed the bill in witness of payment of their wages: to himself, to John Martin and his man, to Edward Vale but not to William Blackshaw. Their rate of pay was 1s per hour. [6] Walter was elected Master for 1644-5 (9 September 1644) but was unable to serve as was explained on 23 September: ‘Whereas Mr John Walters was lately chosen by this Company to become Mr of this Company for the yeare ensuing Now this day upon a mocon by Mr [William] Betaugh now Mr of this Company that in regard of his extraordinary [sic] now in Scotland where he now is hee cannot attend the service of this Company according as he should but did desire this Court to proceede to a new elleicon …’ This indicates that Walter remained in Scotland beyond July 1644. Walter was elected Master once more for 1645-6 (3 September 1645). It was at Mr Walter’s suggestion that Morgan Blewett, a poor member of the Company, was admitted as a pensioner (3 April 1646). At Whitehall in 1646-7 Walter was responsible for repairs to the Earl of Pembroke’s lodgings at The Cockpit. [7] He was one of the senior members of the Company nominated to form a committee to let the corner house in Wood Street (23 April 1651); and he was responsible for auditing the accounts with Mr Kinsman (25 September 1651). He was required to assist the Wardens and other Assistants ‘in treating and contracting with the Company of Bricklayers about the price of lime’ (30 May 1652). A memorandum of 11 August 1653 recorded that Walter was to join the Master, Wardens and Mr [Edmund] Perwich, in serving notice to quit on the tenant of the Hall, Mr Bland. He was a signatory to the memorandum recording the need for an assessment to rescue the Company from debt (23 June 1654) and was required to join a committee to consider ‘what is fit to be done with the foreign plasterers’ (9 December 1657).

Over the course of a long career Walter presented numerous apprentices: John Trumble, son of a Northumberland gentleman, for 8 years (11 February 1624/5; freed 21 March 1631/2, when Walter was fined for releasing him early); Edward Norris for 7 years (14 February 1632/3; freed 18 February 1640/1); William Musgrave, apprentice of Richard Morley, was made free by Walter with whom he had served out his time (21 November 1636); Thomas Cooper, son of a Leicester plumber, for 8 years (13 June 1637); Walter Whitehurst, son of a Staffordshire tanner, for 7 years (14 March 1637/8; freed 22 May 1645); Richard Durant, son of a Westminster brewer, for 7 years but this indenture was cancelled by order of the Court (18 February 1640/1); William Bayley, servant of William Whiting, was turned over to Walter (23 April 1641; freed 2 December 1641); William Menley, son of a Middlesex tailor, for 8 years (23 April 1642); John Evans, son of a London Clothworker, for 7 years (1 May 1645; freed 7 May 1652); John Waight, not previously presented, but probably Walter’s apprentice who was turned over to Rowland Brock on 20 February 1643/4 and freed on 18 May 1646 - he was probably the son of John Waight; Anthony Apling was turned over to him from John Spencer (18 September 1646; freed 15 June 1649); Christopher Hodgson, son of a London Merchant Taylor, for 8 years (2 April 1648; turned over to John Grove on 16 December 1649); Edward Prigmore, son of a London Bricklayer, for 7 years (25 January 1649/50); Anthony Grosvenor, son of a Cheshire husbandman, for 7 years and Samuel Griffin, son of a Middlesex labourer, for 7 years (11 November 1651; Grosvenor was turned over to Raphe Phelps on 25 January 1654/5 and Griffin was freed on 5 September 1660); Joseph Culpett, son of a Norfolk husbandman, for 8 years (25 July 1655); Samuel Conyers, son of a Northamptonshire gentleman, for 7 years (25 January 1656/7; turned over to Gawen Key on 13 October 1660); Thomas Bell, son of a Yorkshire shoemaker, for 8 years (21 February 1658/9). Rather less numerous were the fines he incurred for a variety of offences: bad work in Little Brittaine (14 November 1626); absence (6 February 1628/9); bad work at Wood Street, Puddle Wharf and Addle Street, and with George Echell at the Playhouse in Fleet Street (26 May 1630); Walter was ordered to amend his work in the ‘new bricke howses in the Mynories’ (3 February 1631/2); bad work (16 June 1636); lateness and absence on Search Day (2 February 1636/7); absence (3 September 1639); lateness (4 February 1639/40); absence (20 May & 10 August 1640; 7 May 1641); lateness (13 October 1642); bad work (20 February 1643/4; 15 January 1645/6 and 5 September 1651); for not enrolling his man (7 May 1652); for taking work of a bricklayer (30 May 1652).

John Walter made his will on 17 March 1659/60 as a resident of the parish of St Andrew Holborn, although he requested burial near his wife in the parish of St John Zachary. Legacies totalling nearly £290 were specified, as follows: to the poor of St John Zachary - £5 and of St George Southwark - £20; to John Greenfield, Grocer - £50; to John Grove, Plasterer, ‘for the good of him, his wife and children’ - £50; to each of the daughters of Peter Mills, to buy a diamond ring - £10; to Susan Barnesley, a kinswoman of his wife - £25; to his maidservant, Martha Th … - £25 and her bed and bedding; to the pensioners and poor of the Plasterers’ Company - £10; to the Master, Wardens and Assistants of the Company for a dinner - £10; to ‘all my kindred at Ockington, Devon, near Exeter - £5; 25s each to buy rings, gloves and ribbons, to John Greenfield, John Grove, John Young (Mason), Richard Kale, William Alenson (Tiler and Bricklayer), Captain Caters (Painter), Thomas Mead - £8 15s; Widow Gouldby - £1; Mrs Humfrey Wiggens of Middlesex - £1; Francis Franclowe - £5; to ‘my very good friend Mr Peter Mylles Tyler and Bricklayer, and sole executor’ - £40. Any residue was to be distributed to the poor at the discretion of the executor. Probate was granted on 4 August 1660. [8] The £20 which Walter left to the Plasterers’ Company was received from his executors on 20 September 1660. 

WALTER, Robert (fl. 1624-8)

A Plasterer who was the son of a Monmouthshire husbandman, apprenticed to Thomas Atkinson for 7 years (1 August 1617). Walter was freed on 30 July 1624 and continued to be listed among the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts until 1628.

WALTER (WATERS), Thomas (fl. 1602)

A Plasterer presented by William Barr (16 June 1595) whose abling fine was paid by his master (25 July 1602).

WALTER (WATERS), William (fl. 1595; died 1643)

A Plasterer who was apprenticed to Richard Kelley (28 June 1588) and who paid his abling fine on 3 July 1595. In 1596 Walter was one of the plasterers employed by the Skinners’ Company, working on their new parlour. On 5 June he was paid for five days’ work at 14d per day, earning 6s 8d. [9] As a member of the Yeomanry he contributed 2s 6d to the cost of the Company’s Chancery suit about its corner house in Wood Street (2 February 1608/9). Walter was able to sign his name to the memorandum concerning apprentices (23 February 1616/17). Walter initially refused to enter the Livery (29 August 1616) but finally accepted his selection and paid 10s accordingly (22 August 1621). He was then elected as Junior Warden for 1625-26 (12 September 1625). When he was sworn in he was to pay £7 to the Company in return for exemption from his Warden’s Dinner (29 September 1625 and 29 March 1627). Walter was a signatory to the memorandum recording a loan to the Company by Thomas Atkinson to enable them to meet the City’s request for £60 ‘for the supply of his Majesty’s present wants’ (4 January 1627/8). He was not chosen to serve as Senior Warden at his first attempt (15 September 1628) but was successful the following year and served for 1629-30 (14 September 1629). William Walter was one of the signatories to the audited accounts of the Churchwardens of St Albans Wood Street on 22 July 1635. [10] Walter signed another Company memorandum, this time ordering a fine of 10s for any Assistant or member of the Livery who came to Court or Quarter Day meetings or attended the Lord Mayor and failed to appear ‘in a fitting and decent manner in apparel and wearing ruffs’ (5 February 1634/5). Walter stood unsuccessfully in the election for Master (12 September 1636) but was elected for 1637-8 (11 September 1637). As Master, and together with the Wardens, he took out a loan of £20 ‘because of the lack of Company funds to finance the many suits against [John] Grove and others’ (1 February 1637/8). On 23 April 1640 Walter and William Willingham were appointed to act as arbitrators to settle the differences between Thomas Widmore and Abraham Stanyan. On 20 April 1643 William Walter’s burial was recorded.

Walter was a master of numerous apprentices, many of whom completed their terms: he presented his first apprentice, Robert Woodcock (2 August 1600) and when he was freed, the next was John Knasbrooke (24 August 1608). When Knasbrooke was freed he presented William Clarke, son of a London labourer, for 8 years (29 August 1616). Robert Haskins, son of a Gloucestershire husbandman, was apprenticed for 8 years (30 April 1619); followed by Edward Bunter, son of a Dorset? husbandman, for 8 years (24 April 1620; freed 29 March 1627, when Walter was fined for not enrolling him and for freeing him one year early). Richard Niccolls, son of a London Cutler, was apprenticed for 8 years (25 January 1625/6); followed by John Lightman, son of John Lightman, Citizen and Plasterer, for 7 years (3 July 1626; turned over to William Fisher on 7 May 1630 and freed 4 September 1634). John Townes was presented for 7 years (24 April 1630; freed 11 May 1637); James Hewes, son of a Pembrokeshire clerk, for 7 years (29 May 1633; freed 2 July 1641). John Mathewes, apprentice of Edmond Lake, deceased, was turned over to Walter (2 July 1638; freed 27 August 1638); Edward Morsell, son of a Westmorland cooper, for 7 years (27 August 1638); Edward Whitridge, son of a London Pinmaker, for 7 years (27 June 1640; turned over to William Evans on 24 April 1643 and freed 13 August 1647). Walter’s fines were much less numerous than his apprentices: together with Walter Hill he was fined for evil work in Carter Lane (21 August 1609); for lateness (13 October 1612); for refusing to enter the Livery (29 August 1616); for ill work at Wood Street corner, at a church (4 December 1616); for bad work (22 May 1626); for taking work of a carpenter in Fleet Lane (13 October 1626); for absence on Search Day (30 April 1628); for bad work (7 November 1639); for lateness (27 January 1639/40 and 13 October 1641). 

WALTON, John (fl. 1618-34)

A Plasterer presented by Richard Ratcliffe (5 April 1611) and freed on 29 April 1618. Walton paid his beadleship fine (16 May 1622) and took as his first apprentice George Killinghall, son of a Yorkshire gentleman, for 8 years, promising to remit him one year of his term (3 February 1625/6; presumably ‘Mr Walton’s man’ who was freed 23 April 1632). Walton was fined for absence (20 November 1628). His next apprentice was John Wilson, son of a Cumberland husbandman, for 7 years (19 November 1629; turned over to Thomas Grigg on 10 February 1630/1). He was followed by Robert Waller, son of a Westmorland tailor, for 8 years (25 July 1631). Walton was fined for ‘bad work in divers places’ (31 August 1632) and was last recorded paying arrearage of quarterage on 14 February 1633/4.

 WANTNER (WANTON), John (fl. 1592-1628)

A Plasterer presented by Thomas Moore the Elder (29 July 1586) who paid his fines for abling (29 August 1592) and beadleship (14 August 1593). An entry recorded that the Company had ‘given in benevolence’ to him and ‘laid forth at Marchantayler hall for John Wantner’ (9 July 1612). (The Company may have been requesting that Wantner become a pensioner of the Merchant Taylors.) Wantner paid no quarterage after 1612 and was in receipt of charity again on 25 January 1618/19. He is probably to be identified with John Wantner of All Saints, Minories who left a will dated 2 May 1628 (which has not survived), administration of which was granted to the Churchwardens of All Hallows the Less. [11]

WARBISHE (WARBYSH), Thomas (fl. 1570; died 1594)

A Plasterer who served as Junior Warden for 1570-71, which was the year in which, together with Christopher Fawcett, he worked for the Ironmongers’ Company for six days, earning 7s. [12] Warbishe presented Peter Dungan as his apprentice (1 September 1571). He served as Junior Warden again for 1572-3 and on 4 June 1574 it was agreed that he would be among those senior members who should only pay 6s 8d for their dinner. He served as Senior Warden twice, for 1575-6 and 1577-8. Warbishe paid for the return of Thomas Turner (- July/August 1576) and presented Patrick Savage (8 November 1577); [Henry] Brigges (19 August 1580). Warbishe was elected as Master for the first time for 1581-2 (8 September 1581) and served twice more, for 1583-4 when Simon Betaugh was unable to take up the post (11 September 1583) and 1588-9 (12 September 1588). As an Assistant he put his mark to the memorandum recording the loan of £50 to the Company made by Raphe Bettes (25 March 1586). Michael Mann was presented by him (23 April 1582); followed by Raphe Barnett (25 July 1588). When Mann was freed Warbishe paid for binding his apprentice (22 April 1589). Francis Mann was his next apprentice (26 June 1590). A ‘payment of relief to Mr Warbishe and for his burial was made on 5 April 1594. Warbishe’s will has no date but probate was granted on 6 April 1594. [13] He requested burial in the churchyard of St Andrew Undershaft. To his wife and executrix, Joane, he left the lease of his house and all the goods, movables and implements, to let or sell as she chose, during her lifetime. In the case of her death, his three children were to inherit. Warbishe left complicated instructions in the case of Joane’s remarriage, to ensure that his own children didn’t lose out to any stepchildren. Two friends, a pewterer and a draper, were to act as overseers.

WARD, Robert (fl. 1569-76)

A Plasterer who was employed by the Royal Works at Eltham Palace between May and July 1569. With other plasterers, he was mending walls and ceilings in the Queen’s lodgings and other offices and lodgings. Ward was paid 12d per day for 22 days’ work. [14] Ward is mentioned only once in the Court Minute Book, when he paid quarterage on 24 January 1575/6.

WARD, William (fl. 1598-1611)

A Plasterer who was freed by patrimony on 4 August 1598 (possibly Robert Ward’s son?). Ward was listed in the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts until 1610. At the request of Sir James Pemberton the Company agreed that Ward should be turned over to the Goldsmiths’ Company (4 September 1611). 

WARREN, Edward (fl. 1581-6)

A Plasterer who was presented by Richard Allen (17 August 1576). Five years later, on 8 June 1581, the Court of Alderman decided that ‘after contemplacon of letters from Sir Christopher Hatton it is agreed that Edward Warren should be admitted to freedom in the Plasterers’ Company’. [15] However, it was not until 22 May 1584 that Warren paid for his admission to the freedom of the Company, donated to the poor and paid off the first instalment of his debt. He paid another instalment (2 July 1585) and was last recorded paying arrearage of quarterage on 13 October 1586.

WARREN (WOOEN), James (fl. 1592-1602)

A Plasterer apprenticed to Richard Barfield (8 December 1579) and turned over to Richard Brigges (10 March 1586/7). His freedom is not recorded but he paid part of his debt (29 August 1592) and arrearage (10 January 1594/5). He presented two apprentices: Bryan Peacock (27 April 1597) and Godfrey Fletcher, son of a Derbyshire yeoman, for 8 years (24 June 1602; Fletcher was presented again by Thomas Atkinson on 12 November 1602, suggesting that Warren may have died in 1602). Warren was sent to the Compter for an unspecified offence (30 May 1599).

WARREN, Thomas (fl. 1587)

A Plasterer who was presented by John Jackson (13 October 1579) and paid his abling fine and made a donation for the poor (4 March 1586/7).

WASTNEY (WASNE, WASTLEY), William (fl. 1592-1622)

A Plasterer presented by Henry Willis (12 August 1585) who paid his abling fine (29 August 1592). Wastney paid for the binding of his apprentice, William Godfrey (25 July 1598) and was fined for ill language to John Gelgener (11 November 1603). His next apprentice was Edward Jennings (26 February 1606/7); followed by Raphe Phelps, from Oxfordshire, for 8 years (4 November 1612). Wastney was last recorded paying an assessment on 23 October 1622. Widow Wastney was listed in the Quarterage Accounts from 1622-31; her name was crossed through in 1632. William’s son Roger (Robert in the Quarterage Accounts) was freed by patrimony (22 May 1626). His son John was apprenticed to Richard Browne II for 7 years (30 August 1627) but freed by patrimony (27 January 1631/2).

WATERMAN, Robert (fl. 1632)

A plasterer who was the son of a Berkshire yeoman, apprenticed to Thomas Widmore for 7 years (24 January 1603/4). He was never freed but was a beneficiary under the will of Kenelm Roades, made on 14 June 1632, who left him a blue cloth shirt, a grey cloak, a blue girdle, a pair of blue stockings, a black hat, blue garters and one falling band. [16]

WATERS (WALTER), Thomas (fl. 1602-4)

A Plasterer apprenticed to William Barr (16 June 1595) who paid Water’s abling fine (25 July 1602). Waters donated a spoon with his initials T.W. (10 September 1602) but was noted as ‘mort’ in the Quarterage Accounts for 1604.

WATKINS, Jenkin/James (fl. 1612-25)

A Plasterer who was from Brecknockshire, presented by Bartholomew Holmes (5 June 1605) and made free on 30 September 1612. Watkins was employed for just two days at the Charterhouse in August-September 1614, earning 2s per day. [17] Watkins was listed among the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts until 1625. Thomas Watkins, son of Jenkin deceased, was freed by patrimony on 15 April 1656.

WATSON (WATTS), Henry (fl. 1550; died 1575)

A Plasterer, son of a Buckinghamshire husbandman, who was resident in Aldersgate Ward when he was freed in 1550 after serving 7 years as the apprentice of William Elder. [18] Watson is a likely candidate for the Henry Watts who, in February and March 1567, was one of the team working at Lincoln’s Inn under Richard Tyffyn. [19] Watson served as Junior Warden for 1571-2. These were the years when the Duke of Norfolk was living at the Charterhouse where he commissioned a decorative plaster ceiling for the Great Chamber. It is therefore possible that it was Henry Watson who was the plasterer who created this ceiling (the earliest surviving example in London) as he was among the craftsmen who was recorded as working there, receiving 60s – a sizeable sum for plasterwork at this date. [20] Watson was among the senior members of the Company who were required to pay only 6s 8d for their dinner (30 April 1574). Watson was elected as Senior Warden for 1574-5 but died during his year of office. In October 1574 he made a nuncupative will: ‘Having contracted himself in matrimony with Alice Butler and lived with her in one house for 14 years, or thereabouts, whenever he felt ill he declared to her in front of honest witnesses, that she should inherit all his goods at his death’. Probate was granted on 8 April 1575. [21] On 25 March 1575 the Company recorded money spent at Mr Watson’s burial and on 21 October of that year they paid 4d ‘for Bringing in of Mr Watson’s chest’, presumably the chest that was the responsibility of the Senior Warden. The following year money was spent ‘in goeing to Lewsham aboute Mr Watson’s busynes’ (August/July 1576). It is not clear in what connection 20s was received ‘of Watson’s man Thomas Gower’ (23 November 1576) and 5s was paid ‘to Thomas that was Mr Watson’s man’ (25 January 1576/7).

 

Ceiling in the window embrasure of the Great Chamber of the Charterhouse (c 1570).

 

WEBSTER, Richard (fl. 1588-93)

A Plasterer apprenticed to William Bottom (24 June 1580), who paid his fines for abling (30 August 1588) and beadleship (29 August 1589). While still an apprentice he worked with Bottom at the Drapers’ Company Hall ‘in and vppon the new howse in the Garden there’, where the plasterers were grinding colours, rough casting and plastering, seeling with lime and hair’. [22] Richard Dungan was fined for ill work at Austin Friars by his journeyman, Richard Webster (23 January 1589/90). When William Bottom made his will in 1592 he left items of wearing apparel to his ex-apprentices, including Webster. [23] Webster’s name was last recorded when he made part-payment of a fine on 21 June 1593.

WEBSTER, Walter (fl. 1601)

A Plasterer who was presented by Andrew Street (28 July 1592). Although Webster’s freedom went unrecorded, he paid his beadleship fine on 1 August 1601 but was never listed in the Quarterage Accounts, which survive from 1604 onwards.

WELDON, Andrew (fl. 1600-13)

When Weldon’s name first appeared in the Court Minutes it was not as a plasterer – the Company paid 9s ‘for making of the bond for Weldon the Joyner’ (25 July 1600). This must have allowed him to operate as a plasterer without being ‘translated’ [fully transferred] to the Plasterers’ Company. Although he paid quarterage he continued to appear as Andrew Weldon, ‘free of another Company’ when he was fined for evil work in Holborn (25 April 1605 and again on 30 January 1606/7). Weldon was sent to the Compter (14 August 1607) and an unspecified charge was brought against him (21 May 1613). When John Taylor was freed as the apprentice of John Langford, it was noted that he had served his time with Andrew Weldon (11 March 1613/14). Weldon was listed in the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts from 1604-13 but for that latter year his name was annotated ‘died’ and was replaced by Widow Weldon in 1614. 

WELSH, John (fl. 1590; died 1610)

A Plasterer who must have been one of the many early anonymous presentations as his name first appears when he paid his abling fine (26 June 1590). In March 1595/6 Welsh and his man [presumably John Gelgener – see below] were among the plasterers employed by the Skinners’ Company. They both worked for six days, Welsh at the rate of 16d per day and his man at the rate of 12d per day. [24] Welsh paid for his pattern for the Livery (14 August 1598) and served as Junior Warden from October 1608 – January 1609; but George Mason seems to have substituted for him on occasion in February and March 1609 and to have taken over from April 1609. This seems to have arisen because Warden Welshe was sent to the Compter on 30 March 1609 and committed on 15 July 1609. Welsh was listed as Junior Warden again on 21 August 1609 but on 11 September 1609 he was dismissed from the Junior Wardenship on account of his negligence and poverty and was ordered not to sit with the Assistants. Welsh presented John Gelgener as his first apprentice (14 October 1595). When he presented Thomas Sherwood, son of a Derbyshire shoemaker, for 8 years, Welsh was fined for keeping a boy above six months and setting him to work (26 July 1602). His next apprentice was Richard Conway from Dublin, for 8 years (3 February 1603/4); rapidly followed by Thomas Malone, from County Meath, Ireland, for 8 years (6 July 1604). When John Edwards was presented Welsh was again fined for setting a boy to work unbound (31 August 1609). Welsh appears to have been a somewhat truculent member of the Company, given the number of fines he incurred in a relatively short career: for ill work at Watling Street (18 February 1597/8); for ill work twice (30 May 1599); for ‘cominge in his night gowne to serve the Lord Maior’ (2 November 1599); for ill work in Budge Row (13 March 1599/1600); for absence and ill work in Soper Lane (3 January 1600/01 and 26 July 1601); for various unspecified offences (30 April 1602); for absence (12 November 1602); for ill language to his journeyman [probably John Gelgener] (11 February 1602/3); for absence from the Chamberlain’s election (2 July 1603); for absence (3 February 1603/4); for ill work and disobedience (17 August 1604); for evil work in Red Crow Street (2 November 1604 and 1 August 1605); for evil work (1 February 1604/5); for absence (25 July 1605); for absence on Waiting Days (28 November 1605, 5 May 1606, 26 February 1606/7); for evil work in Moore Lane (26 November 1606); for setting a boy to work contrary to Company Orders (23 June 1607); for ill work by his servant at Maiden Lane and absence on several occasions (3 August 1608); for ill work at Lincoln’s Inn Fields (21 August 1609). On 23 April 1610 the Company made a payment of charity to Welsh and another for his burial. Widow Welsh continued to pay quarterage from 1611-13 but her name was then crossed through and annotated ‘married to Malone’, her late husband’s recently freed apprentice, Thomas.

WELSHE, Walter (fl. 1590)

A Plasterer who was apprenticed to Henry Willis on 27 January 1580/1 and made free as Mr Willis’s man on 8 May 1590, an occasion on which the Company celebrated at Spencers.

WEST, Thomas (fl. 1620-54)

A Plasterer whose master, William Spencer was fined on 13 October 1609 for keeping his apprentice Thomas West for two years without presenting him. West did not pay his abling fine until 5 May 1620. He presented William Slater, son of a Hertfordshire ostler, for 8 years (25 January 1631/2); to be replaced by John Hill, son of a Hertfordshire husbandman, for 8 years (25 July 1632). West paid arrearage of quarterage intermittently; his last recorded payment was made on 17 August 1654. His son Thomas was freed by patrimony on 21 September 1658.

WHAFFE (WAFFE), James (fl. 1614-33)

A Plasterer who paid his abling fine when he was made free by redemption. On the same day an entry reads: ‘Item spent in Mr Waffe’s company at a dinner when he being a Scotch man was made free’ (25 March 1614). Whaffe paid his beadleship fine and presented Hugh Whaffe, son of a Scottish gentleman, for 7 years (16 November 1615). He paid a second instalment of his beadleship fine when he presented William Goodwin, son of a London Goldsmith, for 8 years (8 August 1616). Whaffe was still listed among the Yeomanry when the Quarterage Accounts cease in 1633.

WHITE (WHIGHTE), John (fl. 1567-76)

A Plasterer who was employed by the Royal Works at Greenwich under Thomas Kellie carrying out routine washing and whiting in the Queen’s privy lodgings from December 1567- January 1567/8. White was paid at the rate of 12d per day for the 17 days and 7 nights that he worked there, earning 24s. [25] White was fined for absence (2 September 1575) and made an unspecified  payment that was due (14 March 1575/6). On 17 August 1576 it was recorded that White had been arrested and an action brought against him, the last occasion on which his name was mentioned.

WHITE, Thomas (fl. 1571-4)

A Plasterer who paid for abling and admission in September 1571. White presented Raffe Fraunces on 29 January 1573/4 but neither of them appears again in the Company records.

WHITE, William (fl. 1609; died 1610)

A Plasterer who was the son of a Nottinghamshire yeoman, presented for 8 years by William Martin (1 March 1601/2). White was freed (13 January 1608/9) and made his contribution of 2s 6d towards the cost of the Company’s Chancery suit in connection with the corner house in Wood Street (2 February 1608/9). He was last listed paying his beadleship fine (28 July 1609) and was noted as ‘dead’ in the Quarterage Accounts for 1610. White made a nuncupative will as a parishioner of St Stephen Coleman Street, leaving a ‘french Crowne’ to his brother Robert and 12d each to his sister Rose Taylor and her son. The residue of the estate was left to his wife and executrix Elizabeth and was witnessed by his fellow-Plasterers, Richard Hill and John Townson. Probate was granted on 7 December 1610. [26] Widow White was recorded paying arrearage of quarterage on 15 October 1625 and 29 September 1626 and Mistress White was listed in the Quarterage Accounts among the Assistants from 1623-8; but this is confusing as William White never rose above the Yeomanry, so it is not clear whether she was his widow or not.

WHITEHEAD, Robert (fl. 1608-25)

A Plasterer apprenticed to Richard Stephenson (8 June 1608) who, in 1608, was working alongside his master for Robert Cecil at Salisbury House as one of the team under Richard Dungan. They were engaged on work ‘abowt the seett in the garden and abwte [sic] the parsenages’ [the plaster statues on the garden side of the house]. Whitehead worked for 4 days at 16d per day, earning 5s 4d. [27] On 31 January 1611/12 Robert Whitehead was turned over to John Langford, on condition that he paid £3 to Elizabeth and Susanne, the daughters of Richard Stephenson, deceased. John Allen I contributed to the charges of his turning over. Whitehead was made free and paid his abling money (30 June 1615), followed by his beadleship fine (8 August 1616). In 1617 he was sent, together with Richard Cobb, to work at Edinburgh Castle in preparation for the visit of King James I/VI. They were employed from 17 March to 16 June and on 9 June a payment of £24 Scots (£2 English) was made ‘To Richard Cob and Robert Quhitheid plaisterers for transporting of them hame’. [28] Whitehead subsequently paid arrearage of quarterage (12 March 1623/4 and 26 November 1624) but is not listed in the Quarterage Accounts after 1625.

WHITFIELD (WHITEFEILD, WHITEWELL, WHITFYLD, WYTFELD) Thomas (fl. 1531-84)

A Plasterer of this name was employed in the Royal Works between 1531 and 1537 at several of the numerous sites where Henry VIII’s building projects were under way: at Hampton Court (1531, 1533 1537); Greenwich (1532-3, 1535-7); the Tower of London (1532-3); Windsor Castle (1533); and Chobham (1536-7). [29] It is possible that he is the same Thomas Whitfield who was fined for slandering Mr [Raphe] Bettes (8 February 1571/2) and for an unspecified offence ‘and for his apprentice’ (23 April 1577). He paid his contribution to the cost of the Company’s Parliamentary bill concerning artificers (- March 1580/1) and presented Leonard Smith as his apprentice (16 November 1582). Thomas Whitfield, plasterer and householder, was assessed at £3 in the parish of St Katharine Creechurch in 1582. [30] Whitfield’s name last appears when he was fined for evil work on 4 September 1584.

 

WHITING, Robert (fl. 1601; died 1631)

A Plasterer who was presented by Michael Mann (5 April 1594) and who paid his abling fine (23 April 1601). He paid the fine in lieu of serving one year as a journeyman to Mann (8 May 1601) and his beadleship fine (5 August 1602). He paid his contribution towards the City’s ‘loan’ to the king (- October 1604) and for his pattern on election to the Livery (6 August 1608). Whiting and Thomas Widmore were selected to act as arbitrators in the dispute between Toby Archer and Anthony Sharpe (11 November 1614 and 13 January 1614/15). Warden [Richard] Rawlidge was fined ‘for taking Mr Whiting’s worke out of his hands at Leaden hall’ (23 April 1617). A memorandum of 13 June 1617 recorded: ‘It is this daie ordered that since the Painters have comenced a suite solely against him in the kings bench for laying of a greene colour with size, that the Company shall see him defended in the same though they will not bee seene in it’. On 15 September 1617 Whiting was reimbursed ‘for mony by him given to Mr Beale, one of Sir Henry Yelverton’s Clarks’; this was in connection with the Company’s dispute with the Tilers and Bricklayers (6 August 1619). Whiting was elected and sworn in as Junior Warden for 1618-19 (29 September 1618). He was one of the Company who could sign his name to the agreement concerning the repayment of a loan to the Chamber of London (23 May 1619). While Junior Warden he was among the senior Company members who were to seek an agreement with the Painter Stainers (25 August 1619). Whiting was elected and sworn in as Senior Warden for 1621-2 (29 September 1621). He was chosen as Master for 1624-5 but paid £5 to be excused from serving (11 September 1624). When he won the election again he accepted the office for 1626-7 (11 September 1626). It was subsequently recorded that: ‘As Robert Whiteing was elected Mr before Richard Fisher, and although he was discharged for various reasons, he has paid the fine of £5 and he is to take precedence over Mr Fisher’ (13 October 1627). He was one of the Assistants guaranteeing a bond to enable the Company to pay for a ‘loan’ to supply His Majesty’s present wants (4 January 1627/8). Whiting’s wealth is borne out by his ability to finance the building and glazing of a new room above the kitchen in the Hall (2 December 1628).

Whiting incurred several fines for sub-standard work: together with Edmund Lake, ill work in Fenchurch Street (12 November 1602); evil work at St Mary Axe (8 December 1609); together with Thomas Widmore, ill work on London Wall, near Bishopsgate (2 December 1614); defective work in St Michael’s churchyard (5 June 1621); bad work at the King’s Head, near Leadenhall (5 September 1621). He was also fined for absence from three Court meetings (7 May 1624). Despite being Master, he was fined for taking work of a carpenter in Fleet Lane (13 October 1626). There was more bad work at Mr Alderman Parkhurst’s house in Broad Street (8 November 1627). When he presented John Stephenson, he was fined for keeping his apprentice unbound (11 April 1606); and when Stephenson was freed, Whiting was fined again, this time for not enrolling him. On the same day he presented Robert Woodcock from Edmonton, Middlesex, and was fined for keeping him unbound for about two years (29 April 1613); and again Whiting was fined for not enrolling his man when Woodcock was freed (5 May 1620). Bartholomew Clark, apprentice of James Billing, deceased, was turned over to him (8 September 1619). Edward Ridgeway, servant of Richard Hill, was turned over to him (11 August 1620); followed by James Goodall, late apprentice of Henry Brigges (5 February 1621/2); Richard Mills, son of a Manchester yeoman, was apprenticed for 8 years (31 July 1622); next was James Read, son of a Yorkshire labourer, for 7 years (14 October 1622); Rowland Brock, son of a Gloucestershire weaver, for 7 years (8 May 1623; freed 2 July 1630); James Atkinson, son of a Lancashire shearman, for 7 years; freed 2 July 1630); Richard Jennings, son of a Lancashire plasterer, for 8 years (7 May 1630; freedom not recorded but he paid arrearage 30 April 1644).

Whiting was last recorded at a Court meeting paying arrearage of quarterage on 13 October 1630. He made his will on 5 February 1630/1, asking to be buried in his parish church of St Andrew Undershaft. His estate was divided into three equal shares according to the Custom of London: the first to his wife Sara, who was the executrix; the second to be shared equally by his four children, Robert, Edward, Sara and Alice; the third was made up of legacies of 40s to William Wanstead, bricklayer; 20s each to Hope Whiting, John Whiting of Southwark and Barbara Smith, his servant. Thomas Locke, the overseer, was left 50s to buy a ring in remembrance of him. The will was proved on 2 June 1631. [31] Meanwhile, the Company recorded money spent at Mr Whiting’s burial (26 May 1631). On 22 January 1631/2 it was agreed that Robert Whiting, son of the late Robert Whiting, and now clerk to Mr Robert Michell, Deputy Town Clerk to the City of London, should be granted reversion of the post of Company Clerk when it next fell vacant. This duly occurred on 14 March 1635/6. It was decided that the current tenant of the Hall should be given notice to quit and Robert Whiting should take his place and have his salary as Clerk increased by 40s per annum (11 August 1653). Whting’s tenancy was confirmed on 2 February 1653/4. Whiting’s widow continued to run the business. Robert Wilson, son of a Hertfordshire shoemaker, was apprenticed to Sara Whiting, widow, for 8 years (22 November 1649) and she was still paying arrearage of quarterage on 20 December 1658.

WHITING (WHITEHEAD), William (fl. 1605-61)

A Plasterer from Nottingham who was apprenticed to John Avery for 8 years with one year as his master’s journeyman (16 June 1598). Whiting was released from the final year of his apprenticeship by Avery and made free (1 August 1605). He presented the Company with a gilt spoon with his initials W.W. (7 September 1605) and paid his beadleship fine (4 August 1607). He was among the Yeomanry who paid 2s 6d towards the costs of the Company’s suit in Chancery concerning the corner house in Wood Street (2 February 1608/9). Whiting was sworn in as Junior Warden for 1623-4 (29 September 1623). He was reimbursed for money he had laid out about Eyrdall’s business (3 February 1625/6). Whiting was not successful when he first stood for election as Senior Warden (11 September 1626) but was elected to serve for 1627-8 (10 September 1627). Whiting was able to sign his name as one of the Assistants guaranteeing a bond to enable the Company to pay for a ‘loan’ to supply His Majesty’s present wants (4 January 1627/8). He was one of the signatories to the memorandum recording the Company’s loan for the rebuilding of its houses in Great Wood Street (23 April 1631). John Stephenson was fined a substantial 10s for abusing Assistant Whiting (27 January 1631/2). Another order to which he was a signatory required the Assistants and Liverymen to attend Court and Quarter Days and meetings with the Lord Mayor ‘in a fitting and decent manner in apparell and wearing ruffs’, on pain of a 10s fine (5 February 1634/5). Whiting was elected to serve as Master for 1635-6 (14 September 1635). He made a contribution to the cost of rebuilding the Parlour and the Company Hall (9 February 1642/3). On 4 August 1649 Whiting (with the support of Mr John Hubbard) asked to be dismissed from the Court of Assistants on the grounds of age and weakness. The Court reluctantly agreed because of his ‘auntient services’ and allowed him to pay only quarterage and to continue to have two apprentices as though he were still an Assistant. When John Hubbard made his will on 17 December 1655 he left Whiting (the only Plasterer mentioned) his ‘cloth Gowne lined with Bayes which I vsed to sitt in att the Hall’. [32]

Considering his long career, Whiting incurred relatively few fines, although he was absent on numerous occasions later in his life: ill words (27 June 1606); evil work in East Cheap (30 September 1612); bad work in Fenchurch Street (1 August 1617); absence (4 November 1618); taking work of a carpenter in Fleet Lane (13 October 1626); bad work at The Bell in Gracechurch Street (2 February 1626/7); absence from Paul’s Church on Twelfth Day (25 January 1627/8); absence on Quarter Day (7 May and 9 September 1630; 21 June 1631; 31 August 1632; 7 November 1639; 7 May 1641; 9 February 1642/3); lateness (16 November 1630; 29 November 1632); bad work (19 May 1647; 25 October 1648). When Whiting presented his first apprentice, Robert Flawne, he was fined for keeping the boy unbound for a year and setting him to work (4 June 1610). He was ordered to return the apprentice [John Prior] he had from Henry Greene and if the latter refused to accept him back, the Company was to dispose of him (15 March 1615/16). Greene was subsequently required to make amends to Whiting as their arrangement was contrary to ‘the orders of the house’ (30 April 1616). When Flawne was freed Whiting was fined again for setting a boy to work unbound and presented Gavin Graves, son of a Cumberland butcher, for 7 years (30 June 1618). His next apprentice was Francis Gasker, son of a Cumberland husbandman, for 7 years (5 November 1623; freedom not recorded but paid his beadleship fine on 15 June 1632); Whiting was fined for not enrolling his apprentice before the Chamberlain (3 February 1625/6). He next presented Henry Rowe, son of a Huntingdon gentleman, for 7 years (25 April 1626; freed 29 May 1633); Adam/Hugh Black, son of a Leicestershire yeoman, for 7 years (2 June 1629; freed 25 July 1646, when Whiting paid the fine for making his man free); William Rowe, brother of Henry, for 7 years (25 January 1631/2; freed 7 February 1638/9); William Bayley, son of a Nottinghamshire husbandman, for 8 years (3 December 1633; turned over to John Walter on 23 April and freed 2 December 1641); John Allen, son of a Bedfordshire gentleman, for 7 years (3 February 1641/2); Richard, son of Richard Newman, Citizen and Plasterer, deceased, for 8 years (26 June 1646; freed 10 November 1653); Edward Whiting, son of a Leicestershire husbandman, for 7 years (3 March 1646/7); John Conwell, apprentice of Walter Hussey, deceased, was turned over to him (13 October 1647); William Robinson, son of a Cumberland husbandman, for 7 years (8 August 1650); John Jackson, son of a Hertfordshire weaver, for 7 years (4 November 1652; freed 21 May 1660); John Thwaites, son of a Yorkshire husbandman, for 7 years (17 February 1652/3; freed 18 September 1661); John Furnifull, son of a Cheshire husbandman, for 8 years (25 January 1653/4).

WHITNEY, Walter (fl. 1594; died 1608).

A Plasterer who must have been one of the many young men apprenticed anonymously as he is first recorded paying his abling fine on 24 April 1594. He presented his first apprentice, John Adams II, son of a Hertfordshire farmer, for 9 years (27 September 1598). Whitney paid off a debt arising from an ‘old assessment’ in instalments (9 November 1599, 28 April and 2 August 1600). He also paid the fine for refusing to enter the Livery (21 August 1602) but finally agreed to do so (7 September 1604). His next apprentice was John Everett, son of a Somerset husbandman, for 9 years (- January 1604/5). Whitney made his will on 25 July 1608, asking to be buried in his parish church of St Brides. He left monetary bequests totalling £27 15s, including 40s to the poor of the parish and 40s to the Livery of the Plasterers’ Company, for a repast after his burial. Apart from varying amounts of money and items of clothing that were left to relatives and friends, Whiting was able to leave The Mirror of Magistrates to  his cousin and ‘a booke of Embleames’ to his wife; his bow and arrows to a neighbour and his cittern to a friend. His tenant, a loving friend and haberdasher, was to be allowed to remain in place until the end of his lease. The residue of the estate, including leases, goods, chattels and household stuff was left to his wife and executrix, Margaret. The will was proved on 6 August 1608. [33] When Everett was freed it was Widow Whitney who paid his admission fine (20 February 1611/12) and she continued to pay quarterage as a member of the Yeomanry until 1614, when it was noted that she had died. 

WICKENS, William (fl. 1616-23)

A Plasterer who was to be the apprentice of John Allen I, while the latter was still a member of the Joiners’ Company. Wickens had to be bound to Richard Ratcliffe, Master of the Company, and then set over to Allen to serve his apprenticeship (13 October 1607). Wickens paid his abling fine (1 March 1615/16) and paid his contribution to an assessment (5 May 1620). His name appeared among the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts until 1623.

WIDMORE, Edward (fl. 1619-25)

A Plasterer who was freed by patrimony as the son of Thomas Widmore, and who agreed to serve his father as a journeyman for one year for £8 (3 November 1619). He was admitted to the Livery on 8 September 1625 but was not listed in the Quarterage Accounts after 1625.

WIDMORE (WIGMORE), Robert (fl. 1600-21)

A Plasterer whose name first appears when he was turned over from John Betaugh to Leonard Smith (28 April 1600). Widmore paid his admission fine (23 May 1606). On 13 October 1607 Widmore and Edward Stanyan complained of the unfair treatment of the young men of the Company by the Court of Assistants and their grievances were considered by the Court of Aldermen (6 November 1607). It took some months for a committee to reach a conclusion but a written report containing eleven clauses was finally issued in February 1607/8, upholding the complaints made against the officers of the Company. [34] Widmore paid his beadleship fine (10 September 1610) and presented William Harris as his apprentice (25 July 1611); followed by William Breckson (23 April 1612). The occasion of Breckson’s freedom on 2 May 1621 was the last time Widmore’s name appeared in the Court minutes. Widow Widmore was listed in the Quarterage Accounts from 1621 until 1628.

WIDMORE (WHITMORE, WIGMORE), Thomas (fl. 1589-1642)

A Plasterer (brother of William Widmore) presented by William Austen (25 July 1581) but returned to Randall Shene by Widow Austen (13 October 1582). He was then set over from Shene to George Mason (22 May 1584) and finally paid his abling fine on 12 September 1589. Widmore paid a fine on behalf of John a Lee (31 July 1590) and an unspecified fine on his own behalf (23 May 1592). A fine for ill work in Houndsditch followed (24 May 1594); and another for work in Sherborne Lane (18 February 1597/8). Widmore presented Henry Pritchard and agreed to pay 10s ‘for byndinge his man fourth of the house’ on 25 July (25 January 1594/5). At the due date Widmore paid 5s towards the total agreed (25 July 1595). In June 1595 work began on repairs to the Skinners’ Company Hall and the building of a new parlour. Widmore was one of the plasterers employed, working for just one day in August 1595 at 18d per day. [35] John Betaugh was fined for arresting Widmore without permission (28 April 1599) but Widmore was fined for taking work contrary to Company orders (5 May 1599) and was committed on 30 January 1599/1600. He was sent to the Compter (11 August 1604) and fined for binding an apprentice (Giles Mynor) outside the Company and refusing to bring in the indenture (17 August 1604). He was then sent to Ward (29 August 1604). Despite all this, Widmore was elected to the Livery and paid for his pattern (3 August 1608). It was noted that the case of Widmore and Lee was heard before the Court of Aldermen (27 June 1609) and a further warning to them was issued (28 July 1609). The issues in dispute were clarified on 31 August 1609: the Lord Mayor had ordered Widmore to pay fines for various offences and especially ‘for setting Christopher [sic] Lee his man to worke and afterwards, contrary to the Lord Mayor’s order, for enterteyning him’. Widmore had refused to pay this or any of the fines outstanding for ill work and was therefore to be sent to the Compter and to answer again before the Lord Mayor. Widmore was reimbursed for expenses incurred in his suit against the Painter Stainers on 21 June (17 July 1614). When he was elected Junior Warden for 1615-16, Widmore refused to serve (11 September 1615) and reaffirmed his decision on the grounds that he would not serve alongside Richard Rawlidge (13 September 1615). When Rawlidge was dismissed, Widmore accepted the post of Junior Warden (29 September 1615). The spat didn’t end there and Rawlidge responded by calling Warden Widmore a knave (31 October 1615). Widmore was then fined for going to view Mr Rawlidge’s work without licence (31 October 1615). Richard Terry and Widmore were both training sons as plasterers and agreed to take only one apprentice each while their sons were working for them (30 April 1616). It is not clear, apart from his apparent cussedness, why Widmore was the only Assistant to refuse leave to Anthony Stainrod to bind an apprentice (13 October 1617). Widmore put his mark to the agreement concerning the repayment of the Company loan to the Chamber of London (23 May 1619) and was one of the Assistants deputed to meet the Painter Stainers in an effort to reach an agreement with them (25 August 1619). Widmore was sworn in as Senior Warden for 1619-20 (29 September 1619). After two candidates refused to take up office as Master for 1624-5, the election was contested by Widmore and Richard Fisher and won by the latter (11 September 1624). Widmore was successful the following year and served as Master for 1625-6 (12 September 1625). As Master, he issued a warning to John Taylor for contravening Company orders (25 January 1625/6). The Company made a payment for copies of an order for Mr Thomas Widmore’s man but it is not clear which apprentice was involved (5 December 1626). On 14 June 1627 Widmore was dismissed as an Assistant for misbehaviour, absence (despite warnings), and not paying his dues (which he cannot afford). Despite this last claim, Widmore made a gift of 10s towards the costs of rebuilding the Company house in Wood Street (9 August 1631). William Widmore made his will on 9 April 1634 and bequests included items of clothing left to his brother, Thomas: his best cloak, a tammy doublet and cassock, a pair of grosgrain hose, a pair of worsted stockings, his best hat and a ruff band. [36] A confusing and unhelpfully incomplete memorandum of 11 August 1635 recorded that: ‘I, Thomas Widmore, engage not to grant freedom to apprentice --- , who left me to be bound anew as a Cutler. The mark of W, William [sic] Widmore’. A caveat was issued against Mr Widmore’s unnamed man (2 July 1638). ‘The difference betweene Tho: Wigmore and Abraham Stannion’ was referred to Mr [William] Willingham and Mr [John] Walters (23 April 1640). 

Over a long career, it is not surprising to find that Widmore incurred a good many fines, despite rising to the top of the Company hierarchy: ill work: in Mincing Lane (13 October 1600); in St Mary Axe (3 January 1600/1); in Lime Street (14 August 1601); in the Minories (29 January 1601/2); ill work (22 February 1604/5); in Paternoster Row (6 November 1605); in Mark Lane (23 May 1606); by Aldgate (- August 1606); at Greenwich at ‘the L:ord of Northte’ (26 February 1606/7); for evil work and slandering Company officers (10 February 1609/10); for not enrolling Giles Mynor when he was made free (24 August 1612); ill work in the Poultry and for working under a carpenter (9 December 1612); ill work on London Wall near Bishopsgate, with Robert Whiting (2 December 1614); for bad words to Mr [Richard] Terry (15 March 1615/16); more bad words (1 August 1616); for absence (4 August 1618); for absence from the Search (18 May 1620); ‘for stryving with Mr [Richard] Fisher in the having the prioritie of place’ (3 August 1621); bad work (2 May 1622 and 4 September 1625); payment of £3 towards outstanding fines and for ‘undress’ (9 May 1637); together with Abraham Stanyan, a fine for bad work at the Lord Bannings (15 November 1637); absence (1 August 1639); lateness (7 November 1639; 18 February 1640/1). Widmore’s apprentices were also numerous: Robert Lee, son of a Nottinghamshire yeoman, for 7 years (3 September 1601); Robert Waterman, son of a Berkshire yeoman, for 7 years (24 January 1603/4); Giles Mynor, son of a Gloucestershire weaver, for 8 years (17 August 1604 – see above); Edward Davy, son of Davy ap Jenkin, for 8 years (25 July 1612); Thomas Lantoffe, son of a Huntingdonshire collar maker, for 8 years (16 November 1615); John Rogers, son of a Northamptonshire husbandman, for 8 years (8 September 1619; Rogers failed to complete his term as he went ‘beyond the seas as a voluntarie Souldier’, 26 November 1624); Edward Widmore was freed by patrimony and agreed to serve his father as his journeyman for one year for £8 (3 November 1619); Abraham Marshall, son of a London porter, for 8 years (9 November 1621); Thomas Lycense, son of a Gloucester shoemaker, for 9 years (23 April 1623; turned over to Clement Kelley on 25 January 1626/7 and freed 7 May 1630); John Emes, son of a Worcestershire husbandman, for 8 years (26 November 1624); John Freeman, son of a Suffolk shoemaker, for 7 years (25 January 1625/6); Edmond Satle, son of a Somerset husbandman, for 8 years (6 November 1628); Andrew Price, son of a Worcestershire husbandman, for 7 years (7 May 1630); Edward Gardiner, son of a London Merchant Taylor, for 7 years (25 January 1630/1; freed 4 April 1638); Joseph Browning, son of a London Carpenter, for 8 years (25 July 1631; turned over to Thomas Hothersole on 22 March 1632/3); Anthony Knight, son of a London Pouchman, deceased, for 8 years (8 November 1632); Walter Porter, son of a Monmouth carpenter, for 8 years (11 August 1635); William Downes, apprentice of John Taylor, was turned over to him (29 June 1637; freed 21 February 1638/9); Richard Dalloway, son of a Dorset bricklayer, for 7 years (1 August 1638); John Cane, son of a Whitechapel bricklayer, for 7 years (25 January 1641/2; freed 19 June 1650).

WIDMORE (WHITMORE, WIGMORE), William (fl. 1602; died 1634)  

A Plasterer (brother of Thomas Widmore) who was apprenticed to Richard Tomlin (15 June 1593) but it would seem that Tomlin died shortly afterwards as Widmore was presented again by John Langford (20 February 1594/5). Widmore’s freedom is not mentioned but he promised to give the Company a spoon worth one Angell (24 April 1602) and donated a spoon worth 10s with his initials W.W. (13 October 1602). He paid his contribution towards the cost of the King’s coming through the City (17 August 1604) and paid his beadleship fine (22 February 1604/5). As a member of the Yeomanry he paid the assessment of 2s 6d towards the cost of the Company’s Chancery suit concerning its house in Wood Street (2 February 1608/9). Widmore was elected to the Livery (31 July 1612) and paid for his pattern (7 August 1612). Widmore and Robert Whiting were appointed to settle a dispute between Anthony Sharpe and Toby Archer (11 November 1614 and 13 January 1614/15). He made his mark to the Company memorandum concerning apprentices (23 February 1616/17) and was sworn in as Junior Warden for 1620-21 (29 September 1620). The following year the recently retired Master and Wardens were called upon to pay 9s 4d which was lost during their tenure of office through receipt of ‘light gould’, which was ‘an insufficient answere and excuse’ (25 October 1621); Widmore paid half of this amount, 4s 8d (20 August 1622). He was sworn in as Senior Warden for 1623-4 (29 September 1623) but was unsuccessful in the election for Master at his first and second attempts (12 September 1625 and 15 September 1628). As an Assistant he put his mark to the memoranda about a Company loan (4 January 1627/8 and 23 April 1631). In the dispute that arose between Widmore and Henry Sheppey over ‘words spoke’, the Company found in favour of Widmore and both parties put their marks to an agreement; but Widmore was fined for evil words spoken to the house and Sheppey was dismissed from the Assistants for refusing to pay the fine agreed (23 August 1630). Widmore was finally elected to serve as Master for 1631-2 (12 September 1631). When Henry Hurlstone refused to serve as Junior Warden for 1632-3, he handed over his fine to Mr William Widmore (14 September 1632). When he presented his first apprentice, John Dodsley, Widmore was fined for keeping an apprentice against Company Orders (26 March 1607). When Dodsley was freed he was succeeded by Robert Martley, son of a Gloucester lantern-maker, for 9 years (24 April 1615); Robert Saunders, son of a Bristol embroiderer, for 9 years (23 April 1621; freed 30 July 1629); Henry Burnell, son of a London Merchant Taylor, for 8 years (11 July 1623; freed 16 December 1630); John Clarke, son of a Middlesex carpenter, for 8 years (26 July 1630; freed 3 September 1639); Edward Williamson, son of a Cheshire serving man, for 7 years (10 February 1630/31); John Browne was turned over to Peirce Godbeheare (23 April 1635). Browne would appear to be the son of a Cumberland clothworker, apprenticed to Henry Greene on 3 July 1628. After Greene’s death in 1632 he must have been turned over to Widmore, who mentioned him in his will (see below) and then to Godbeheare. When Browne was freed on 3 July 1635 the name of his master was, not surprisingly, left blank. Widmore’s fines were not numerous and were for: ill work (27 April 1612); bad work in Botolph Wharf (2 August 1615); absence (18 May 1620); bad work on two occasions (3 August 1621); insufficient work (24 April 1622); absence (12 March 1624/5); bad work at Mr Carpenter’s house in Whitechapel (2 February 1626/7); bad work (6 November 1628); Widmore was ordered to make good defective work in the church of St Magnus near London Bridge, either Within or Without (6 November 1629); bad work at the church of St Mary Magdalen (26 May 1630). When William Willingham was appointed Bridgehouse Plasterer to the City Corporation on 22 April 1634, he succeeded William Widmore, deceased. [37]

From 1609 William Widmore leased a house near the church of St Magnus in Thames Street from the Vintners’ Company. When the site of this property was excavated from 1974-8, pottery, glass and clay pipes dating from 1611-30 were recovered from a drain, which must have belonged to Widmore and his family. [38] As the article points out, this is a rare instance where excavated artefacts can be connected with specific Londoners before the Great Fire. William’s widow Joan was still living there until 1656, as specified in his will (see below). Mrs Widmore paid arrearage of quarterage on 13 May and 21 November 1636.

 

Pottery found on the site of William Widmore’s house in Thames Street

 

Widmore had made his will on 9 April 1634, asking to be buried in the parish church of St Botolph near Billingsgate, although he was living near St Magnus, Thames Street. To his daughter he left one-third part of his goods and chattels, to his son-in-law the gown that he usually wore in church and to his grandson £10. His brother Thomas also received clothing (see above), as did Robert Quick, a fellow-Plasterer who was described as ‘brother’. To his godson, Wigmore Quick, he left £5. Thomas Lycense, ex-apprentice of Thomas Widmore and described as ‘kinsman’ was bequeathed £5 and forgiven any outstanding debts. His wife Joane, residuary legatee and sole executrix, was to enjoy the lease of the dwelling house in St Botolph, held from the Vintners’ Company. His two apprentices, John Browne and John Clarke, were each to receive 10s at the end of their apprenticeships. The will was proved on 16 April 1634. [39]

WILDBORE (WELBORE), William (fl. 1614-57)

A plasterer, son of a Northamptonshire labourer, who was presented by Robert Saunders for 7 years (26 July 1613). In 1614 he was employed at the Charterhouse among the large team of plasterers employed in converting the buildings for Sutton’s Hospital. From 23 May – 19 June and 18 July – 14 August he worked a total of 24 days at 20d per day; from 15 August – 9 October his rate of pay increased to 22d for the 37½ days he worked, earning a total of £5 8s 9d. [40] Wildbore was never made free but on 17 February 1657/8 a memorandum recorded that a number of foreign plasterers had appeared before the Court and having heard the Company’s Ordinances, agreed to appear on Quarter Days and pay quarterage. Wildbore was among these ‘foreigners’ and in 1657 his name appeared in the Company’s Work Quest Book, following a Search. ‘One Wildbore, a foreigner’ had been finishing three houses in Shire Lane on behalf of  Peter Newborne, a freeman of the Company. The new work, whiting and colouring were deemed ‘bad’. [41]

WILKINSON (WYLKINS), Thomas I (fl. 1568)

A plasterer employed by the Royal Works in 1568. From August – September he was working at Reading in the privy lodgings for 27 days at 13d per day, earning a total of 29s 3d. From September – November he moved to Greenwich, where he received only 12d per day. In September he was engaged for 9 days mending the ‘sellinges’ in the privy lodgings; in October he spent 5 days on the gallery going into the park; and in November he was still working there and in the great chamber for 11 days, bringing his total earnings to 25s. [42]

WILKINSON, Thomas II (fl. 1598-1619)

A Plasterer who was freed by patrimony on 25 July 1598 (possibly the son  of Thomas Wilkinson I). His name was listed among the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Accounts until 1619, to be replaced by Widow Wilkinson, whose name was crossed through in 1621.

WILLIAMSON, Griffin (fl. 1576)

A Plasterer who paid his abling and admission fines on 17 August 1576 but whose name does not otherwise appear in the Company records.

WILLIAMSON, Thomas (fl. 1599)

A Plasterer whose name is only recorded when he presented John Taylor, son of a London butcher, for 9 years (25 July 1599).

WILLINGHAM, William (1590-1644)

A Plasterer who was baptised at Nassington, Northamptonshire, on 7 June 1590. [43] Although he was presented by Mr [Hugh] Cappe, Willingham was immediately turned over to Edward Stanyan (29 July 1608). Willingham was freed on 31 October 1615, when Stanyan was fined for allowing him a year off his apprenticeship. He paid for his pattern on entering the Livery (19 October 1621). A warrant was issued by the Company against Willingham and William Wollaston (31 July 1622). In 1624 Sir Edward Barkham was the Treasurer of War appointed by Parliament to receive that year’s subsidy. Perhaps this was the reason why the Company paid Willingham and Roger Morley £2 for working for Sir Edward (30 July 1624). A further payment to them was made (30 July 1624) and Willingham alone received 12s for additional work for Sir Edward the following year (15 October 1625). Could it be that the Company was making its payment in kind? Between 1630 and 1637 Willingham was engaged by the Royal Works on various plastering tasks at Somerset House. [44] Apart from routine plastering of the interior and exterior, Willingham also supplied ‘twoe frett Ceelings’ at 6s per yard and ‘another new Ceeling’ at 8s per yard, costing in total £87 11s 2d. [45] Clearly Willingham had become a plasterer capable of decorative work during his training with Edward Stanyan. When the Company undertook the repair of the Hall and ‘the makeinge of a frett sealinge’ it was Willingham who supplied the latter, receiving £36 1s 8d for his workmanship, the Company providing materials (10 December 1635). A further payment of £11 5s was paid to him for plastering work in the Hall (11 September 1640) and another £6 5s for work about the Hall and Company tenements (11 August 1641).

In the election for Junior Warden for 1632-3 three successful candidates in turn refused the office, leaving Willingham elected. However, this led to a major contretemps and on 29 September 1632 it was decided that ‘in respect of his misdemeanor and ill carriage and stubborn words to the Companie he is for ever with the free consent of the Companie abovesaid dismissed for anie attendance or to be anie more of the Liverie of the said Companie’. On 30 September Willingham remained recalcitrant and was dismissed from the Livery; but on 13 October he paid a £12 fine and was not only received once more into the Livery, but was also appointed an Assistant without serving as Junior Warden. At the same time, a memorandum noted that this arrangement should not set a precedent. Unsurprisingly, a dispute over seniority arose between Willingham and Oliver Mountford (who had served as Junior Warden) and was resolved in Mountford’s favour on two occasions (3 December 1633 and 13 November 1634). Meanwhile, Willingham had donated £1 towards the cost of rebuilding the corner house in Wood Street (29 May 1633). Following the death of William Widmore Willingham was appointed Bridgehouse Plasterer to the City of London, a post he held until his death in 1644. [46] He was able to sign his name to the memorandum requiring the Assistants and Liverymen to attend Court and Quarter Days and meetings with the Lord Mayor ‘in a fitting and decent manner in apparell and wearing ruffs’, on pain of a 10s fine (5 February 1634/5). Willingham was elected Senior Warden for 1635-6 and agreed to serve without further protest (14 September 1635). Willingham seems to have become less intransigent with time and was appointed with Mr [William] Walter to settle the difference between Thomas Widmore and Abraham Stanyan (23 April 1640). Willingham was elected Master for 1640-1 (14 September 1640). Apparently he made a loan to the Company of £50 as he was paid interest on it at regular intervals (11 November 1641, 23 April 1642, 1 December 1642, 30 November 1643; and to his Executors on 26 August 1644 and 25 January 1644/5). Despite his disputes with the Company, his only fine was one for absence (14 October 1639). Willingham presented his first apprentice, Michael Rowe, son of a Cambridgeshire husbandman, for 8 years (23 April 1621; freed 22 June 1629); his next was Edward Jorden for 8 years (23 April 1628; freed 29 April 1636); John Hart, son of a butcher from Ansty, Hertfordshire, for 8 years (29 May 1633; freed 4 June 1641); Peter Newbould, son of a chandler from Ansty, Hertfordshire, for 8 years (29 April 1636; freed 8 August 1644); John Piggott, son of a Buckinghamshire yeoman, for 8 years (4 June 1641; turned over to Henry Rowe on 27 June 1645 and freed 1 June 1648). 

Willingham made his will on 9 June 1644, asking to be buried at Ansty, Hertfordshire, with his wife’s kindred. [Two of his apprentices came from this same village.] He left 10s to the poor of his parish and 10s to the poor of Ansty and 40s to the Plasterers’ Company. His brother George was to receive a ring with a death’s head and a little cottage was to provide a marriage portion for his daughter. The residue of goods, chattels and rents from properties was to go to his wife and executrix, Frances. In conclusion he prayed God ‘to end these distracted times so people would serve God and obey the king, who I beseech God open his eyes’. Probate was granted on 17 August 1644. [47] Frances had made her will on 16 July 1644, leaving a further 20s to the Plasterers’ Company and requesting George Willingham to supervise her son and daughter, acting as father to them both. This will was also proved on 17 August 1644 and a receipt issued to George Willingham on 20 August 1644. [48] The executors of Willingham and his wife paid the legacy of £3 to the Company on 25 January 1644/5. 

WILLIS (WILLOWES), Henry (fl. 1567; died 1608)

A Plasterer who was among those against whom proceedings were brought by the Painter Stainer, John Cooper; they were accused by him of ‘intermeddling’ before the Court of the King’s Remembrancer in the Michaelmas Term of 1567. [49] Willis paid for his pattern for the renewed livery (4 June 1574 and again on 25 July 1582). Willis served as Junior Warden for 1583-4 (11 September 1583). He was among the few at that date able to sign his name to the agreement between the Company and Raphe Bettes for a loan of £50 (25 March 1586). The Company paid for celebrations at Spencers at the making free of Mr Willis’s man [William Evans] (8 May 1590). Willis was elected as Senior Warden for 1591-2 (11 September 1591) and as Master for 1594-5 (12 September 1594) and again for 1599-1600. Willis was among the senior members of the Company called upon to arbitrate in a dispute between Richard Ratcliffe, Robert Garsett and Lewis Genoway (3 December 1595). When the Company discharged its bond with Raphe Bettes, Willis was among the witnesses, signing as ‘Harry Wyllys’ (23 December 1596). Willis paid to have an apprentice and presented Alexander Kelley (30 April 1574). He was swiftly followed by Rolf Smith (2 September 1575); Walter Welshe (27 January 1580/1); William Evans (31 May 1583); William Wastney (12 August 1585); John Pitcher (5 September 1590); Francis Fisher (25 July 1594); William Spencer (12 August 1597); Thomas Askall was turned over to him from Matthew Hand (9 November 1599); Morgan Blewett, son of a Middlesex yeoman, for 8 years (23 April 1604); when William Rowntree was freed it was stated that he had been turned over from James Owen but this had not been recorded (10 July 1607); Walter Fenton was turned over from Richard Stephenson (30 June 1608). Willis was fined for disobedience (17 June 1575). Further fines included: lateness (2 September 1575); bad work with Morgan Dowling (- April 1576); for not enrolling his man, when John Pitcher was freed (3 February 1597/8); for ill work in a church at Goldsmiths’ Hall (30 April 1602); evil work (1 February 1604/5). Willis’s name was replaced in the Quarterage Accounts after 1608 by his widow Agnes, until she died in 1612. Agnes made her will on 17 March 1611/12, as a resident of Tottenham, where she wished to be buried in the churchyard. She left an estate worth £7 3s, consisting of household goods and small sums of money to be distributed among her extended family, with bread to be distributed to the poor of Tottenham. The will was proved on 29 June 1612. [50]

WILMOTT (WILLMER, WILLMORE), Edmund (fl. 1609-25)

A Plasterer from Northamptonshire who was apprenticed to John Towson for 8 years (1 March 1601/2). Wilmott was freed (10 February 1608/9) and paid his contribution towards the Irish Plantation (13 April 1614). He was listed among the Yeomanry in the Quarterage Acoounts until 1625.

WILSON, Henry (fl. 1603-48)

A Plasterer presented by James Stanley (31 January 1594/5) who paid Wilson’s abling fine when he was freed (11 February 1602/3). Wilson paid a further abling fine (6 July 1604) and paid his contribution to the City ‘loan’ to the King (- January 1604/5). He donated the white [silver] spoon that was due when he was made free (22 May 1605) and paid 6s towards the costs of the King’s entry into the City and the renewal of the Company’s charter (10 September 1605). As a member of the Yeomanry Wilson contributed 2s 6d to the costs of the Company’s Chancery suit concerning the corner house in Wood Street (2 February 1608/9); and to the assessment to pay for the Irish Plantation (4 November 1612). From 1616 he was recorded in the Quarterage Accounts as a member of the Livery but on 9 August 1631 Wilson was ‘discharged from the clothing of the Company’ at his own request, on the grounds of poverty. On 23 April 1640 he was paid the fee for acting as Under Beadle and it was confirmed that he would receive £4 per annum as Assistant to Robert Betaugh, the Beadle (25 July 1640). In addition, the Company paid for pairs of shoes for him as Beadle (15 January 1645/6 and 30 September 1647). A new Beadle was chosen on 1 June 1648, following Wilson’s death. Wilson’s first apprentice was Richard Molton (25 July 1608); followed by Davy Davies (22 April 1609); Robert Wright, son of a Kent shipwright, for 8 years (7 November 1617; freed 22 May 1626); Leonard Walls, son of a Suffolk dyer, for 8 years (1 May 1627; on 13 October it was noted that he had left Wilson’s service on 1 August 1629); James Tolley, son of a Worcestershire yeoman, for 8 years (8 December 1629; freed 4 April 1648); John Cole, son of a Wiltshire clothworker, for 8 years (2 July 1638); Walter Butler, son of a Northampton Freemason, for 8 years (2 July 1641); Henry Frankland, son of a Hampshire husbandman, for 7 years (8 February 1646/7). Wilson paid few fines: for bad work in Churchyard Alley (15 March 1615/16); for not enrolling his man Davies when he was freed (1 May 1617); for absence on two occasions (6 September 1620).

WILSON, Roger (fl. 1602-9)

A Plasterer who was presented by Widow Echell as having been bound by the Chamberlain from March 1595 (28 January 1597/7). Wilson paid his abling fine (12 November 1602) and donated a spoon with his name (25 July 1603). He was fined for evil work in Chancery Lane (4 July 1606) and ill work in Fleet Street (24 May 1609). He presented John Stafford as his apprentice (6 November 1607). The Company paid ‘to our Attorney for thexaminacon of Roger Wilson his declaracon in the Crowne office’ (6 November 1607). In the Quarterage Accounts for 1609 he is noted as ‘died’.

WOLLASTON (WILLISTON), William (fl. 1615-25)

A Plasterer apprenticed to Thomas Hayes (10 May 1609). On 27 February 1610/11 Anthony Sharpe was fined for buying an apprentice when he already had one, and Wollaston was turned over from him. Wollaston paid his beadleship fine on 25 July 1615. However, the following year Hayes and Sharpe were fined for releasing him one year early and on the same day Wollaston, ‘late servant to Mr Sharpe’, paid his abling fine and was made free (27 May 1616). His beadleship fine was paid for a second time (4 August 1618). Wollaston was fined for absence (4 November 1618). He was admitted to the Livery (5 September 1621). He received a warning, with [Edward] Brooke (25 July 1622) and a warrant was issued for Wollaston and William Willingham (31 July 1622). Wollaston was fined for bad work at or near the Custom House, the last occasion on which his name appears in the Court minutes (4 May 1625). Wollaston made his will on 22 July 1625, leaving £4 to his loving mother, £10 to his sister Frances, £2 each to his brothers Walter and Richard. John Witwell, his apprentice, was to receive £5. (Wollaston must have taken him on when Witwell’s master, James Chapman, died in 1624-5; he was never freed.) Margaret Wollaston, his loving sister, was the residuary legatee and sole executrix. The will was proved on 30 July 1625. [51]

WOOD, Richard (fl. 1568-83)

A Plasterer who is first mentioned when he was one of the team working for the Drapers’ Company at ‘Mr Dummer’s house in Bassingshaw and the tenement to the same’ in 1568-9. Wood was employed for 6 days at 12d per day. [52] The following year, 1569-70, he was one of those employed at St Alphage Cripplegate where he earned 7d for just ½ a days’ work. [53] Wood was still an apprentice on these occasions and did not pay his admission fine until 25 March 1575. His abling fine followed (17 June 1575) and he was fined for absence (18 and 28 November 1575). A memorandum of 17 August 1576 noted that Wood was among the young men who served as bachelors that year. An anonymous apprentice was presented by him (27 February 1578/9). Wood paid unspecified fines (12 September 1579 and 27 April 1581) and a fine for bad work (19 August 1580). He contributed to the costs of the Company’s Parliamentary bill concerning artificers (- March 1580/1). Geoffrey Benbridge was presented as his apprentice on 16 August 1583, the last occasion on which Wood’s name was recorded.

WOODCOCK, Robert (fl. 1608-12)

A Plasterer presented by William Walter (2 August 1600) and freed on 29 July 1608. Woodcock was fined for keeping an (unnamed) apprentice contrary to Company orders (31 January 1611/12). He paid his beadleship fine on 13 August 1612 but was recorded in the Quarterage Accounts as having died in that year.

WOODROFFE (WOODEROOFE), Robert (fl. 1620-49)

A Plasterer from Edmonton, Middlesex, who was presented by Robert Whiting for 7 years on 29 April 1613, when Whiting was fined for keeping his boy unbound for about two years. Woodroffe paid his fines for abling (5 May 1620) and beadleship (5 June 1621). He took as his first apprentice John Martin, son of a Buckinghamshire husbandman, for 8 years (6 November 1628). Woodroffe’s son Baptist was apprenticed to Stephen Bricknell for 8 years (23 April 1639). Following the death of Henry Wilson, Woodroffe was chosen to succeed him in the post of Beadle (1 June 1648) and was duly sworn in (28 October 1648). However, he was dismissed from the post for neglecting his duties on 23 April 1649 and was, instead, named as a Company pensioner. Woodroffe’s name does not appear again but his son Robert was made ‘free by patrimony gratis being a very poore man’ (9 December 1657).

WRIGHT, John (fl. 1582-94)

A Plasterer presented by Edmond Essex (6 May 1575), who paid his abling and admission fines on 4 July 1582. Wright was one of the young men who served as a bachelor (13 October 1582) and paid his beadleship fine (16 August 1583). Wright presented Raphe Sharpe as his apprentice (29 July 1586); followed by Anthony Sharpe (24 July 1594). He paid for his pattern on entering the Livery (9 August 1594). Sharpe was turned over to Robert Burton following Wright’s death (28 April 1599).

 

[1] TNA PROB 11/186.

[2] TNA PROB 11/205.

[3] The Records of the Honorable Society of Lincoln’s Inn. The Black Books. Vol I. From AD 1422 to AD 1586, Lincoln’s Inn (1897), Appendix 1, p. 31.

[4] LMA CLC/L/MD/MS 34348, ff. 93r-94r.

[5] LMA ACC/1876/F/09/48.

[6] National Register of Archives of Scotland: 217, Box 5, no. 610. We are indebted to Dr Michael Pearce for this reference.

[7] TNA AO 1/2430/76.

[8] TNA PROB 11/301.

[9] LMA CLC/L/SE/D/007/MS 30727/004, f. 306.

[10] LMA P69/ALB/B/003/MS 07673/001.

[11] LMA DL/AL/C/001/MS 09050/006, f. 41v.

[12] LMA CLC/IB/D/001/MS 16988/002, f. 212.

[13] LMA DL/C/B/004/MS 09171/018, f. 170v.

[14] Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson A.195.c, ff. 212v and 220v.

[15] LMA COL/CA/01/022, f. 204r.

[16] LMA DL/AL/C/003/MS 09052/008, will no. 55.

[17] LMA ACC/1876/F/09/48.

[18] C Welch (translator & ed), Register of Freemen of the City of London in the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, London (1908).

[19] The Records of the Honorable Society of Lincoln’s Inn. The Black Books. Vol. I. From A.D.1422 – A.D.1586, Lincoln’s Inn (1897), Appendix I, p. 31.

[20] Cambridge University Library MSS, Dd.13.8, f.16r. We are indebted to Philip Temple for this reference.

[21] LMA DL/C/B/004/MS 09171/016, f. 209.

[22] LMA Drapers’ Company Archives: Renters’ Accounts, RA 5/19 (1582-3), f. 17v.

[23] LMA DL/C/B/004/MS 09171/017, f. 368.

[24] LMA CLC/L/SE/D/007/MS 30727/004.

[25] Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson A.195.c, ff. 7r and 30r.

[26] LMA DL/C/B/004/MS 09171/021, f. 304.

[27] HHA Bills 28.

[28] J Imrie & J G Dunbar (eds), Accounts of the Masters of Works for building and repairing Royal Palaces and Castles, Vol II: 1616-1649, Edinburgh (1982), passim.

[29] TNA E 36/237, ff. 233, 262,767; /240, f.7; /241, ff. 286, 387, 403, 418; /244, ff. 314, 383, 422; Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson D.775, ff. 56v, 115v, 206; 780, ff. 24v, 187r; Nottingham University Library: Newcastle MS Ne.01, passim.

[30] R G Lang, Two Tudor Subsidy Assessment Rolls for the City of London: 1541 & 1582, London Record Society (1993), p. 132.

[31] TNA PROB 11/160.

[32] TNA PROB 11/252.

[33] LMA DL/C/B/004/MS 09171/021/054.

[34] LMA COL/CA/01/031, ff. 99v, 154, 164v-166v.

[35] LMA CLC/L/SE/D/007/MS 30727/004, f. 297v.

[36] LMA DL/AL/C/003/MS 09052/008, will no. 198.

[37] LMA COL/CA/01/052, 278v.

[38] J Schofield & J Pearce, ‘William Widmore’s pottery cupboard: excavations in Thames Street, London, 1974-8’, London Archaeologist, Vol 14, no 1 (Summer 2014), pp 19-23.

[39] LMA DL/AL/C/003/MS 09052/008, will no. 198.

[40] LMA acc/1876/f/09/48.

[41] LMA CLC/L/PG/E/MS 06126, Work Quest Book (1653-1761).

[42] Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson A.195.c, ff. 72v, 79r, 85r and 397r.

[43] Northampton County Record Office: Nassington 217P/1.

[44] TNA AO 1/2490/383, AO 1/2427/64-7.

[45] TNA AO 1/2428/68.

[46] LMA COL/CA/01/052, 278v and /061, f. 164v.

[47] LMA DL/C/B/007/MS 09172/051, will no. 44.

[48] LMA DL/C/B/007/MS 09172/051, will no. 45.

[49] TNA E 159/355, rots. 212, 213, 215.

[50] LMA DL/C/B/001/MS 09168/016, f. 148v.

[51] LMA DL/AL/C/003/MS 09052/006, will no. 301.

[52] Drapers’ Company Renter Wardens’ Accounts: RA 5/9, ff. 14v and 15v.

[53] LMA P69/ALP/B/006/MS 01432/002.